Presentation on theme: "Collaborators Office of Early Learning NC DPI ESL Staff Johnston County Schools FPG Child Development Institute Expert Presenters Cristina Gillanders."— Presentation transcript:
Collaborators Office of Early Learning NC DPI ESL Staff Johnston County Schools FPG Child Development Institute Expert Presenters Cristina Gillanders and Dina Castro
About terms we use Why is it important to promote oral language in dual language learners? How do children become bilingual? Developmental sequence of second language acquisition Strategies for promoting oral language development in young dual language learners
Limited English proficient? Second language learner? English language learner? Bilingual? Dual language learner?
Relation between children’s language development and reading success Dual language learners performing below non- Hispanics white in reading by fourth and eight grade. This suggests that DLLs’ early performance in oral language development, both in English and their home language, have important consequences for their later reading achievement
First-language skills transfer and support the learning of a second language. The extent of cross-linguistic relationships among bilingual children from different language groups depends on the relation between languages and their writing systems. It helps establish a strong cultural identity, to develop and sustain ties with immediate and extended families. Knowing more than one language has personal, social, cognitive, and economic advantages.
Types of bilingualism - Simultaneous and sequential Degrees of bilingualism - Balanced – Partial – Receptive bilinguals
DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION StageExamples of Child’s Behavior I. Use of Home Language Uses home language with English-speaking peers and teachers. II. Nonverbal / Observational Period Remains silent when interacting with teacher and peers. Uses non-verbal gestures to request help. III. Telegraphic Speech Uses one to three words in English to describe situation. IV. Formulaic Speech Uses expressions such as “I don’t know,” “lookit” or “fall down.” V. Productive Speech Combines vocabulary and phrases already known into new sentences. Can maintain a conversation with an adult or child taking three to four turns. Tabors, P. O. (1997) One child, two languages: A guide for preschool educators of children learning English as a second language. Baltimore: Paul Brookes
Teachers need to maximize children’s comprehension of instruction and content. Promote opportunities to learn new words and phrases. Instruction needs to accommodate to children’s stage of second language acquisition.
StageStrategies Home Language Children use home language with English speaking peers and teachers. Often they will appear oblivious to the new language because the language spoken by adults and other children is inaccessible or incomprehensible to them. o Learn phrases in children’s home language. o Talk about the here and now, and keep a consistent classroom routine. o Think aloud what you are doing. o Incorporate assistant or volunteer who speaks child’s home language. o Use visual and physical aids. o Do not require children to generate English spontaneously or individually.
StageStrategies Non-verbal / Observational Children remain silent when interacting with teacher and peers. They use nonverbal gestures to request help. Children will become quiet, and will observe and listen intensively as the new language is used in different activities. o Encourage children to “Echo” or repeat what they hear. o Model instructions with gestures and by showing children what they are being asked to do. o Expand children’s limited communication by building on what they say. o Give children words or phrases that can help them communicate important messages. o Show the end result of projects children will be asked to do.
StageStrategies Telegraphic Use one to three words in English to describe situation. o Repeat phrases several times. Associate familiar language patterns with particular routines or lesson segments. o Model targeted chunks of language using puppets. Puppetry is an effective strategy to reach shy children, and to encourage dual language learners to use their new language in a non-threatening environment.
StageStrategies Formulaic Children use memorized phrases (e.g., I don’t know, let’s go), and combine them into new sentences. They may appear more proficient than what they are. o Expand on the vocabulary the child already knows. o Use inquiry to promote questions and conversations among children. o Request clarification to extend children’s use of known phrases. o Promote feedback to encourage, interpret, and evaluate. Add a little more as you go (Additive). o Negotiate meaning with concrete cues.
StageStrategies Productive Children begin creating original sentences. They may combine grammatical structures from home language with new vocabulary in English. o Use communicative opportunities to expand children’s talking skills. o Talk about stories. Use conversation as a way to promote oral language. o Use bilingual songs and poetry using physical movement as a way to promote vocabulary development, and comprehension.
Have you been in a place where most people talked in a language that you did not understand?
What did you do to communicate? a) I made gestures b) I spoke louder c) I spoke slower in my language d) I made a picture
Did someone help you understand or communicate? What did this person do to help you? A) Show you how to do something B) Speak slower C) Repeat words D) Show you pictures E) Use a few words in your language
Strategic use of the home language Use the home language in the environment, Encourage children attempts to respond even if they respond in their home language Use of the home language for purposes other than solely discipline Learn phrases in children’s home language Obtain books in the home language
Use manipulatives, gestures, facial expressions and pictures Repeat words and phrases Encourage other children who are at more advance stages of SLA to act as interpreters Demonstrate consistency in the organization of classroom activities
Reading aloud is one of the key activities to promote oral language and literacy development in young children. Vocabulary development is crucial for reading comprehension. Since dual language learners are learning two languages they often have smaller vocabularies than monolingual children, although they eventually catch up given the appropriate language environment.
Requires a combination of direct teaching and learning words in everyday routines Children can learn new words in read alouds when they are actively engaged Maximize opportunities to understand the text Provide multiple opportunities to learn a new word
Those of you who are teachers and teach young DLLs, what have you observed in the DLLs’ behavior when you are reading aloud a storybook ? a) Children are distracted b) Children are silent c) Children show disruptive behavior d) Children are actively engaged
How can I ensure that the DLLs can understand the reading aloud session? What new words or phrases do I want the children to learn? How will I ensure that the children can actively participate in the reading aloud session?
Use home language Use manipulatives Read the story several times during the week Incorporate culturally relevant and familiar thematic units Provide a child –friendly definition of new words
Choose a limited set of core words and a phrase that are essential for understanding the story Choose words that are frequently used in books In small groups make explicit efforts to teach words
Stage of English Acquisition Ways in which children can participate Home language Show a picture of the word in English, ask the child to say the word in the home language Non verbal Ask the child to point to a picture of the word Telegraphic/Formulaic Ask children to repeat phrases of the text Productive Ask children open ended questions
1. Ask questions to expand the children’s understanding 2. Ask children to repeat the word aloud 3. Provide an explanation of the word 4. Provide examples of the word in different contexts 5. Provide opportunities for the children to demonstrate their understanding of the word 6. Ask the children to repeat the word aloud (Beck et al.,2002)
REMEMBER… Young dual language learners must learn not only new language skills but also new social skills and cultural values. Draw on the linguistic, cultural and personal experiences of the children when planning classroom activities. Partner with families. Be sensitive to individual differences. Bilingualism is not a liability!! On the contrary, it benefits children’s development and can give them better opportunities for the future.
The content of this presentation is part of the Nuestros Niños Professional Development Program at FPG Child Development Institute
Resources Center of Early Care and Education Research-DLL: http://cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/ http://cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/ Nuestros Niños: http://nnrp.fpg.unc.edu/http://nnrp.fpg.unc.edu/ New Voices ~ Nuevas Voces: http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~nv/index.cfm http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~nv/index.cfm FirstSchool: http://www.firstschool.us/http://www.firstschool.us/ Storybook Reading for Young Dual Language Learners: www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/201101/GillandersOnline_0111.pdf www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/201101/GillandersOnline_0111.pdf WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards: http://wida.wceruw.org/index.aspx http://wida.wceruw.org/index.aspx WIDA – “Can Do” Descriptors booklet for PreK-K: http://www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet_PreK-K.pdf http://www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet_PreK-K.pdf WIDA – “Can Do” Descriptors booklet for Grade 1-2 : http://wida.wceruw.org/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet1-2.pdf http://wida.wceruw.org/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet1-2.pdf
Next Steps Questions? Today’s presentation will be posted “Resources for Early Childhood DLLs” is posted on the OEL web site : www.ncprek.nc.gov/InfoforEducators/videoresources.asp www.ncprek.nc.gov/InfoforEducators/videoresources.asp Content for future webinars: “Out the Door” poll For additional questions about this webinar contact: Annemarie.firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: 919-855-6840