# Because the Earth is a sphere and maps are flat, there will always be some degree of distortion.

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Because the Earth is a sphere and maps are flat, there will always be some degree of distortion

Mercator Projection:

Robinson Projection

Peters Projection

Plate Carree Projection

Sinusoidal Projection

Mollweide Projection

Dot Maps

Isoline Map

Choropleth Map

Cartogram

Proportional Symbol Map

Scale A comparison of distances on a map to distances on the earth METHODS OF PORTRAYING SCALE ON A MAP: Graphic Scale = scale bar Verbal Scale = written statement Fractional Scale = representative fraction

What kind of scale? “One inch to 5 miles” Verbal scale

What kind of scale? 1:316,800 or 1/316,800 Fractional Scale

What kind of scale? Graphic Scale

Scale: One of the “map essentials”!

When scale is not shown on a map – Beware!

These mushroom spores are too small to see, so we put them under a MICROSCOPE. When we can see them, we can study them.

This planet is too big to see, so we put it under a MACROSCOPE. When we can see it, we can study it.

We need to use our... MAPS as MACROSCOPES... to help us think critically about problems and “problem spots” on the world stage.

Scale is Critical to Critical Thinking Using reason to decide what to believe or do. Assessing the authenticity, accuracy, or worth of knowledge claims and arguments. Applying careful, precise, persistent and objective analysis of any knowledge claim or belief to judge its validity.

Format of Many pre-1914 German School Atlases

Comparative Size of Germany and USA in 1914

Data may also distort desired results. The following slides show how population of a particular cohort may be misleading

This map shows the percentage of African-Americans living within counties across the US.

This map shows the total number of African- Americans living in each county across the US.

These four New York counties (New York, Kings, Queens, and Bronx) have a combined African- American population of 2,121,882 and outnumbers the total number of African- Americans in the entire state of Texas 2,021,632

A similar comparison can be made with Hispanics living in the US. This map shows the total percentage of Hispanics in each county.

This map displays the total number of Hispanics in each US county.

These three Southern California counties (Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego) have a total Hispanic population of 5,045,726 which is greater than the total Hispanic population of Texas at 4,339,905. New Mexico has the greatest percentage of Hispanics (33%), it’s total Hispanic population is 579,224.

US Population The map below shows the US population divided into Natural Breaks. In this case, the natural breaks are near the 7,000,000 mark.

US Population This map shows US population in Quintiles. In this map, states are classified into five separate categories based on population. The dark red represents the states in the top one-fifth. The total population in each state has not changed; however, the way that it is classified has changed.

Natural Breaks Quintile

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