Presentation on theme: "Fragments and Run-ons There will be a link to this PP on my website so you can use it to study. The grammar quiz will be on Wednesday even if Tuesday is."— Presentation transcript:
1 Fragments and Run-onsThere will be a link to this PP on my website so you can use it to study.The grammar quiz will be on Wednesday even if Tuesday is a snow day. Study handouts and A Pocket Style Manual.
2 Terms to Know: SubjectSubject: who or what the sentence is about (who or what is doing the action)Learning grammar is fun.She teaches.Those who write well know the rules.The big hairy dog with the spots on its nose is annoying me.
3 Terms to Know: Predicate Predicate (verb): A verb and any objects, complements, and modifiers that go with it.I will go to the store on Saturday.The cat with the orange tail purrs loudly.I am hungry.She is beautiful.
4 Terms to Know: ClausesClause: word group with a subject and verb, plus any objects, complements, or modifiers.Independent Clause: a word group containing a subject and verb that can or does stand alone as a sentence. I left my books in the rain. They are wet.Subordinate (dependent) Clause: A word group containing a subject and verb that cannot stand alone as a sentence. Since I missed the train. While it was snowing.
5 Terms to Know: Conjunctions Coordinating conjunction: Used to join elements of equal grammatical rank. (fanboys = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)Subordinating conjunction: A word that introduces a subordinate clause and indicates the relation of the clause to the rest of the sentence. (after, although, because, if, until, when, though, since, etc.)Relative pronouns: one of the following words, when used to introduce and adjective clause, which is a type of subordinate clause. (who, whom, whose, which, that)
6 Finding FragmentsA fragment will be missing a subject, the verb, or express an incomplete thought.Subject missing: Are skiing smoothly down the mountain. Should be planted around the house in rows.Verb missing: The two men. All the animals in the house.Incomplete thought: (often takes these forms)Subordinate Clause: Although the two men are skiing smoothly down the mountain. When I am grown up.Verbal phrase: Running down the hall. To improve her score on the SAT. Convinced that he could win the election.
7 How to Fix a FragmentExample: Many adults suffer silently from agoraphobia. A fear of the outside world.Pull it into an existing sentence: Many adults suffer silently from agoraphobia, a fear of the outside world.Turn it into a sentence: Many adults suffer silently from agoraphobia. They have a fear of the outside world.
8 Recognizing Run-onsA fused sentence has no punctuation or coordinating conjunctions between independent clauses.The room was cold it was damp.A comma splice is where two or more independent clauses are joined with a comma and no coordinating conjunction.At least a lesson had been learned, next time he would prepare for any emergency.
9 How to Repair a Run-on The room was cold it was damp. Add a comma and coordinating conjunction: The room was cold, and it was damp.Use a semicolon: The room was cold; it was damp.Make the clauses into separate sentences: The room was cold. It was damp.Restructure the sentence: The room was cold and damp.Note: when repairing a run-on, choose the method that works best for that sentence. Of the above choices, which one sounds best?