Presentation on theme: "IFS Real Options, Patents, Productivity and Market Value November 2002 Nicholas Bloom (Institute for Fiscal Studies) John van Reenen (Institute for Fiscal."— Presentation transcript:
IFS Real Options, Patents, Productivity and Market Value November 2002 Nicholas Bloom (Institute for Fiscal Studies) John van Reenen (Institute for Fiscal Studies & UCL)
IFS Summary Part 1: Patents Data There is a consensus that technological advance is crucial in the “new economy” Patents provide a powerful indicator of this technology We hand-match patents from over 12,000 assignees to 450 UK parent firms. Using this dataset we show a strong and significant effect of patents on –Productivity –Market Value Patent citations are also shown to informative
IFS Summary Part 2: Real Options We use this data to test new “Real Options” theories Embodying new technology requires heavy investment, training and marketing. When firms patent technologies they have the option to see how market conditions develop This generates patenting real options Hence, higher uncertainty will lead to a more gradual technology take up This turns out to be empirically significant
IFS Previous Patenting Work Toivanen, Stoneman and Bosworth (1998) and Bosworth, Wharton and Greenhalgh (2000) find patenting effects on market value in UK firms. Griliches (1981), Hall (1993), and Hall, Jaffe and Tratjenberg (2001) report effects on market value in US firms. Greenhalgh, Longland and Bosworth (2000) report a positive employment effect of patenting in UK firms.
IFS Patents Data We constructed the new IFS-Leverhulme dataset using patenting, accounting and financial data. The patenting data was hand matched from the 12,000 largest US PTO patenting assignees to their UK parent companies. The remaining 128,000 patenting subsidiaries were then computer matched – which is less accurate. This provides reliable firm level patenting information from 1968 to 1993 on the UK and Overseas subsidiaries of about 200 UK firms
IFS Patents Data >1>10>25>100>250>1000 Firms236161117754112 The Top 8 UK Patenting Firms ICI8422 Shell7200 SmithKline Beecham3672 BP3632 BTR3432 Lucas Industries3119 GEC3054 Hanson2892 The distribution of firms by total patents: 1968-96
IFS Citations Data Citations provide a proxy of patent values, which appear to be extremely variable. This allows us to fine tune our raw patent counts
IFS Citations Data Patent TopicGrant Year Cites 1976-96 ShellSynthetic Resins1972221 Grand Metropolitan Microwave heating package 1980174 ICIHerbicide compositions 1977130 UnileverAnticalculus composition 197797 British Oxygen Corp. Pharmaceutical Treatment 197589 The Five Most Cited Patents
IFS Citations Data But the lag between patenting and citing can lead to truncation biases when using citation weights
IFS Citations Data We correct for these truncation biases in citations data using a Fourier series estimator
IFS The IFS-Leverhulme Dataset We match patents with Datastream accounting data MedianMeanMin.Max. Capital (1985 £m)1437441.618,514 Employment (1000s)8,39824,37440312,000 Sales (1985 £m)3621,2241.1520,980 Market Value (1985 £m)1537400.2919,468 Patents312.60409 Patent Stock1042.601218 Cite Stock49.220205157 Uncertainty1.391.470.606.6 Observations Per Firm2220329
IFS Patenting & Productivity Standard production models (see Griliches, 1990) usually assume Cobb-Douglas production We proxy he knowledge stock using the stock of patents (PAT) built up using the perpetual inventory method. This allows us to estimate “ ” – the return to patents Using patent citations allow us to fine tune our knowledge stock measure where: G is knowledge stock, K is capital, and L is labour
IFS Productivity Equation Results Sales All FirmsPatenters Capital0.333 *0.436 *0.438 *0.468 * Employment0.650 *0.558 *0.554 *0.502 * Patent Stock0.024 *-0.012 Citation Stock0.030 *0.039* No. Firms2063211 189 No. Obs.18,0682219 1896 Notes: A full set of firm and time dummies is included. All coefficient marked * are significant at the 1% level All variables are in logs. Estimation covers 1968-1993.
IFS Patenting and Market Value The effect of patents on firm performance can also be measured using forward looking market values Following Griliches (1981), Bosworth, Wharton and Greenhalgh(2000), and Hall et al (2000) we use a Tobin's Q functional form. where
IFS Market Value Results Log Tobin’s Q (log(V/K)) Patent Stock/Capital 1.620*-0.352* Citation Stock/Capital 0.427*0.491 * No. Firms205182 No. Obs.20531748 Notes: A full set of firm and time dummies is included. All coefficient marked * are significant at the 1% level All variables are in logs. Estimation covers 1968-1993.
IFS Patents and Real Options Bertola (1988), Pindyck (1988), Dixit (1989) and Dixit and Pindyck (1994) first noted the importance of real options in generating investment thresholds for individual projects. Abel and Eberly (1996) and Bloom (2000) extend this theory to show how real options lead firms to be cautious in responding to demand shocks. This cautionary effect of real options on investment has been shown empirically by Guiso and Parigi (1999) and Bloom, Bond and Van Reenen (2001).
IFS Modeling Patents & Real Options To model this caution effect of real options we define “G” as the firms potential knowledge stock and “Ge” as its embodied knowledge We can then define the elasticity of embodied to actual knowledge as Higher uncertainty leads to a lower elasticity of embodiment – a slower pass through of patents into production
IFS Modeling Patents & Real Options We prove that the effect of total patents (PAT) will be positive But the effect of new patents on productivity will be reduced by higher uncertainty - the caution effect The direct effects of uncertainty will be ambiguous. Interestingly, while this is true for productivity, market values are forward looking. To investigate these effects we add in uncertainty levels and interaction effects.
IFS Our Uncertainty Measure Our uncertainty measure is the average daily share returns variance of our firms over the period Using a firm specific time invariant uncertainty measure matches the underlying theory This share returns uncertainty measure has been used before by Leahy and Whited (1998) and Bloom, Bond and Van Reenen (2001).
IFS Patent Real Options Results Real SalesTobin’s Q Capital0.451*0.446* Employment0.517 *0.553* Patent Stock0.025*0.038* Uncertainty-0.036*0.297* Uncertainty Pat. Stock-0.015*-0.010* Tobin’s Q0.913*1.743* Uncertainty Tobin’s Q-0.265^-0.073 Firm DummiesNoYesNoYes No. Firms211 205 No. Obs.2053 2037 Notes: All coefficient marked * and ^ are significant at the 1% and 10% level All variables are in logs. Estimation covers 1968-1993.
IFS Conclusion Patents appear to play an important role in determining productivity and market value But their impact on productivity is delayed when higher uncertainty reduces the rate of technological embodiment Hence, micro and macro stability could play a large role in encouraging technological development.