# How far has the Reliance refinery affected the mechanisation of its adjacent villages and what are its effects?

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How far has the Reliance refinery affected the mechanisation of its adjacent villages and what are its effects?

Multinational investment and the traditional rural community How we derived our topic? When we visited the first village after visiting the green belt, we saw a vast difference in the technological advancement of the two locations. While talking to the teachers regarding the feasibility of working on the idea of ‘transport’ in and around the refinery, the idea of finding the efficiency of the tractors used in the plantations came up. Once this happened, the Chemistry, Biology and EVS portions came naturally as all tractors combust diesel to give out various harmful gases and these gases eventually effect those in contact with them and the surrounding environment as well. Hence we came up with – “How far has the Reliance refinery affected the mechanisation of its adjacent villages and what are its effects?”

Physics “The efficiency of the tyres used as well as the cost efficiency of the tractors used in the plantations”

Basic Concept There are two things that we are looking at in this practical experiment. Firstly, there is the cost efficiency of the tractors that are used in the plantations. The following is the method that we used to determine the more cost efficient tractor: - We asked the farmers who worked the tractors the approximate distance travelled in a day, the amount of diesel that is used per day as well as the approximate speed they travel at - Taking those factors into account, we calculated the cost efficiency after finding out the market price of diesel - What we concluded is the tractor with the greater cost efficiency is no doubt better than a less cost efficient one

To calculate the cost efficiency This is dependant on the mileage – Nanikhaudi: Daily diesel input = 20 litres Time spent driving tractor daily = 12 hours Total use of diesel per day = 14 litres Distance travelled = 30 km per day on field Mileage = Distance travelled = 30 =2.14 km/l Amount of diesel used 14 Amount of diesel used 14 Amount spent on diesel per day = 35.2 x 14 = Rs. 492.80 = Rs. 492.80 Cost efficiency = Cost of diesel per litre = 35.20 = Rs. 16.44 Mileage 2.14 Mileage 2.14

Padana: Daily diesel input = 22 litres Time spent driving tractor daily = 11 hours Total use of diesel per day = 11 litres Distance travelled per day on field = 27 km Mileage = Distance travelled = 27 = 2.66 km/l Amount of diesel used 11 Amount of diesel used 11 Amount spent on diesel per day = 35.2 x 11 = Rs. 387.20 = Rs. 387.20 Cost efficiency = Cost of diesel per litre = 35.20 = Rs. 13.23 Mileage 2.66 Mileage 2.66 Reliance Greens: Daily diesel input = 12 litres Time spent driving tractor daily = 8 hours Total use of diesel per day = 10 litres Distance travelled per day on field = 32 km Mileage = Distance travelled = 32 = 3.2 km/l Amount of diesel used 10 Amount of diesel used 10 Amount spent on diesel per day = 35.2 x 10 = Rs. 352 = Rs. 352 Cost efficiency = Cost of diesel per litre = 35.20 = Rs. 11 Mileage 3.2 Mileage 3.2 Note: What should be noted is that in Reliance Greens, the tractors aren’t used extremely often though maintained well nonetheless.

Secondly, we looked at the frictional force between the tyres of the tractor and the surface. The following is the method that we used to determine the more suited plantation tractor: - By looking at and around the tractor we found out the model number and the tractor brand using which we researched on different websites regarding the power of the tractor and the weight of the tractor - Then we asked the driver to drive a certain measured distance at a constant velocity; the time taken was noted down for the same - Using the formula Power = Force x Velocity, we calculated the force of the truck. Now, since the force of the truck is equal to the frictional force experienced by the truck as acceleration is zero, assuming velocity is constant, this obtained value of force is nothing else but the frictional force.

- Once we calculated the force of the tractor, using the formula Force = μ x the total weight of the tractor, we calculated the value of ‘ μ ’, which is the co-efficient of friction (depending on the nature of the surface, the value of μ varies with it being around 1 on an extremely smooth surface)

Collected data Acceleration due to gravity = 9.78 m/s- 2 Price of diesel = Rs 35.20 Mahindra Yuvraj 275 Power of the tractor = 30HP (22380W) Distance travelled by tractor = 30 m Time taken = 20 seconds Weight of tractor = 17354.61 N Ford 3600 Power of the tractor = 34.4HP (25662.4W) Distance travelled by tractor = 1500 m Time taken = 180 seconds Weight of the tractor = 28626.06 N

Calculations Mahindra Yuvraj 275 Power (P) = 30 HP = 22380W Distance (d) = 30 m Time (t) = 20 seconds Total weight of the tractor (including weight of driver) = 17354.61 N Co-efficient of friction = μ Power = Force (F) x Velocity 22380 = F x (30) 20 20 22380 x 2 = 3F 44760 = 3F F = 44760 = 1492 N 3 F = Weight of the tractor x μ 1492 = 17354.61 x μ μ = 1492 = 0.086 17354.61 17354.61 Ford 3600 Power (P) = 34.4 HP = 25662.4W Distance (d) = 1500 m Time (t) = 10 seconds Total weight of the tractor (including weight of driver) = 28626.06 N Co-efficient of friction = μ Power = Force (F) x Velocity 25662.4 = F x 25 3 25662.4 x 3 = 25F 76987.2 = 25F F = 76987.2 = 3079.49 N 25 25 F = Total weight of the tractor x μ 3079.49 = 28626.06 x μ μ = 3079.49 = 0.107 28626.06 28626.06

Chemistry “The volume of harmful gases emitted from the exhaust of the tractors used in different locations”

Basic Concept - Jamnagar has many surrounding villages which have agriculture as their main form of occupation, also the green belt in the reliance greens has a lot of crops growing there. - Tractors are a very important tool used in farming and with so much farming going on a lot of fumes are released due to the combustion of fuel in the diesel engines used in tractors. -To see the effects of mechanization on the villages of the refinery we went to and calculate the amount of fumes vented by the tractors at different locations at different distances from the refinery. -First we measure the dimensions of the pipe and then we calculated the time taken for the exhaust to exit the pipe hence getting the velocity of the pipe and hence getting the value of the fuels emitted per day and calculating which tractor is more efficient.

- Tractors used in the reliance greens are maintained in a better way and hence emit less harmful gases than tractors used in the villages. Theory: - Tractors have a diesel engine which is a hydrocarbon based fuel. - Diesel when burnt produces many harmful gases, in different proportions, like sulphur dioxide, sulphates, particulate matter, nitrous oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon oxides and other toxic substances which add to the air pollution of the environment and have adverse effects in human beings.

Data collection LocationPadanaNanikhaudi Reliance greens C19.1206.5 C1C1C1C130.54711.2 L795071 L1L1L1L155.636.556 TimeN/A1.51.25 Note: C is the circumference of the upper pipe whereas C 1 is the circumference of the lower pipe. The diameters, d and d 1 were calculated using C = 2πr, where r is the radius of the pipe.

Data Evaluation Volume of gas emitted per second = C x L x 2π+ C1 xL1 x 2 x π Time Time Volume (Nanikhaudi) = 11.4 dm 3 Volume (Reliance Greens) = 5.47 dm 3 Volume (Padana) = not applicable as time could not be calculated.

GasesNanikhaudi Reliance greens NO x 2.391.1487 Ethane0.009120.000437 Methane0.0177840.00853 CO2.20021.056 SO20.2280.1094 Volume of each gas emitted per second is as stated below, in dm3: Concentration tables Gas Parts per million (ppm) Percentage of ppm NO x 20970.21 Ethane80.0008 Methane15.60.00156 CO19300.1930 SO 2 41.30.00413

Biology “Mechanisation of villages has an adverse effect on the villagers”

Basic Concept An experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of the gases emitted from the exhaust of the tractors as well as the effect of driving tractors for a long period on human health. The following is the method we used to determine the effect on human health: - We measured the pulse rate of the driver before and after he drove and we measured the pulse rate of the of our own group members before and after we rode on the tractor - We then used theory based knowledge to determine the effects of an abnormal pulse rate on humans.

Collected Data Person Pulse Rate Before Pulse Rate After Karan 75 bpm 92 bpm Dhruv 78 bpm 90 bpm Pranav 79 bpm 92 bpm Driver - Bharat 80 bpm 96 bpm The average pulse rate of an adult human being is 72bpm. The average range of the pulse rate of an adult human being is between 60bpm and 100bpm. - We felt that we should determine whether or not the pulse rate rose more while doing manual labour or during the use of tractors. - Since the farmers were not ploughing their fields at that time, we conducted a simulation. -We found that the pulse rate rose from 80bpm to 112bpm. Benefits of Mechanisation

The implications of a high pulse rate An elevated pulse rate indicated that the heart is beating faster than it normally would. When a person has an elevated heart rate: ` - They are at risk because their heart cannot pump blood as efficiently. - This can develop into a condition called tachycardia if the heart rate rises above 100 beats per minute. - The faster the heart beat, the more oxygen and nutrients the heart requires, this may leave people out of breath and makes them fatigued faster. Also lesser blood goes to the lungs, kidney and heart.

The effects of the use of tractors - The tractors cause air pollution - These emissions consist of harmful gases such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide - Exposure to very high levels of sulphur dioxide can be life threatening. Exposure to 100 parts of sulphur dioxide per million parts of air (100ppm) is considered immediately dangerous to life and health. - Burning of the nose and throat, breathing difficulties, and severe airway obstructions occurred in miners who breathed sulphur dioxide released as a result of an explosion in a copper mine. - Long-term exposure to persistent levels of sulphur dioxide can affect your health.

- Older workers that have been working in the fields for about 15 years now complain of getting tired sooner than others and shortness of breath - Carbon monoxide is also released, this could cause CO poisoning because this gas inhibits the functioning of haemoglobin and doesn’t allow it to transport oxygen efficiently. Carboxyhaemoglobin is formed, and this is a stable compound that doesn’t allow the oxygen to detach from the haemoglobin. - These gases cause health problems such as bronchitis and emphysema. - Bronchitis develops due to exposure to airborne pollutants whereas Emphysema causes dramatic decrease in the surface area of the lungs because the alveoli either separate, or clump together and they function far less efficiently

Environmental Systems “Mechanisation of villages has an adverse effect on the environment”

Basic Concept To determine the effect of the proximity of the villages to the green belt on the agriculture and the effect of the gases emitted by the tractor on the environment. To do so, we prepared a questionnaire. Results: From the interview we discovered that mechanisation had become more popular after the establishment of the refinery. Almost all the farmers agreed that the use of tractors had in fact increased the efficiency of their as well as made it much easier. Also, since the establishment of the refinery, their crop output as well as their income has almost doubled!

The effects of the use of tractors - Tractors causes air pollution emitting gases such as CO, NO x and SO 2. - Carbon monoxide increases the amount of other greenhouse gases (methane), and eventually oxidises into the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide linked to global warming. - Sulphur dioxide is toxic to plants and can cause acid rain when it reacts with moisture in the air. Acid rain damages trees and other plants, and it can also affects the soil. Therefore, at first it tractors may lead to efficiency in farming but if the level of emission is not controlled it would have adverse effects on the crop produce on the long run.

- Nitrogen dioxide emitted into the air reacts with moisture that is also in the air. This returns to earth in the form of acid rain. Acid rain damages trees and other plants, and it can also affect the soil it falls on, causing the soil to release aluminium that can be harmful to the plants, fish and insects that come into contact with the acidified water draining out of the soil. - Chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sunlight at ground level produces ozone. Ozone occurs naturally in the atmosphere but the reaction involving NO x gases can produce unnaturally high ground level ozone levels, which can affect plant health.

Solutions - The right tractor tyres should be used on respective fields - The tractors should have regular check-ups and the exhaust refinement system should be refilled - Reliance Industries Limited should spread this kind of awareness such that the environmental conditions improve in the areas around the refinery

Conclusion Physics: The soil in Nanikhaudi was more fertile than that found in Padana and it offered less friction. Also the tractors in the Reliance Greens were much better maintained and efficient than those found in the nearby villages. Chemistry: We can see from the values that the exhaust of the tractor in the Reliance Greens is much better for the environment in comparison to those found in the neighbouring villages due to better maintenance. Biology: Mechanisation has helped the adjacent villages as the harmful effects caused are insignificant in comparison to the advantages gained by the farmers. Environment Systems: At first it tractors may lead to efficiency in farming but if the level of harmful gas emission is not controlled it would have adverse effects on the crop produce on the long run.

Made by: Pranav Marwah Dhruv Swaroop Rohan Kothari Tarini Kumar Arjun Gogia Karan Sethia Akansh Ganeriwala Lakshaya Sindhwani Saahil Murarka

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