# mankiw's macroeconomics modules

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mankiw's macroeconomics modules
A PowerPointTutorial to Accompany macroeconomics, 5th ed. N. Gregory Mankiw Mannig J. Simidian CHAPTER EIGHT Economic Growth II

Technological Progress in the Solow Model

Adding the Efficiency of Labor "E"
The Production Function is now written as: Y = F (K, L  E) The term L  E measures the number of effective workers. This takes into account the number of workers L and the efficiency of each worker E. Increases in E are like increases in L.

Labor-Augmenting Technological Progress
Technological progress causes E to grow at the rate g, and L grows at rate n so the number of effective workers L  E is growing at rate n + g. Now, the change in the capital stock per worker is: Dk = i –(d+n +g)k, where i is equal to s f(k) sf (k) (d + n + g)k The Steady State Note: k = K/LE and y=Y/(L  E). So, y=f(k) is now different. Also, when the g term is added, gk is needed to provided capital to new “effective workers” created by technological progress. Investment, sf (k) k* Capital per worker, k

Labor-augmenting technological progress at rate g affects the Solow
growth model in much the same way as did population growth at rate n. Now that k is defined as the amount of capital per effective worker, increases in the number of effective workers because of technological progress tend to decrease k. In the steady state, investment sf(k) exactly offsets the reductions in k because of depreciation, population growth, and technological progress.

The Effects of Technological Progress
Capital per effective worker is constant in the steady state. y = f(k) output per effective worker is also constant. But the efficiency of each actual worker is growing at rate g. So, output per worker, (Y/L = y  E) also grows at rate g. Total output Y = y  (E  L) grows at rate n + g. Only technological progress can explain long run increases in living standards.

The introduction of technological progress also modifies the criterion for the Golden Rule. The Golden Rule level of capital is now defined as the steady state that maximizes consumption per effective worker. So, we can show that steady-state consumption per effective worker is: c*= f (k*) - (d + n + g) k* Steady-state consumption is maximized if MPK = d + n + g, rearranging, MPK - d = n + g. That is, at the Golden Rule level of capital, the net marginal product of capital, MPK - d, equals the rate of growth of total output, n + g. Because actual economies experience both population growth and technological progress, we must use this criterion to evaluate whether they have more or less capital than at the Golden Rule steady state.

From Growth Theory to Growth Empirics

poor countries should grow faster on average than rich countries.
Convergence Hypothesis An important prediction of the neoclassical model is this: Among countries that have the same steady state, the convergence hypothesis should hold: poor countries should grow faster on average than rich countries.

Beyond the Solow Model: Endogenous Growth Theory
The Endogenous Growth Theory rejects Solow’s basic assumption of exogenous technological change.

The Basic Model Start with a simple production function: Y = AK, where Y is output, K is the capital stock, and A is a constant measuring the amount of output produced for each unit of capital (noticing this production function does not have diminishing returns to capital). One extra unit of capital produces A extra units of output regardless of how much capital there is. This absence of diminishing returns to capital is the key difference between this endogenous growth model and the Solow model. Let’s describe capital accumulation with an equation similar to those we’ve been using: DK = sY - dK. This equation states that the change in the capital stock (DK) equals investment (sY) minus depreciation (dK). We combine this equation with the production function, do some rearranging, and we get: DY/Y = DK/K = sA - d

DY/Y = DK/K = sA - d This equation shows what determines the growth rate of output DY/Y. Notice that as long as sA > d, the economy’s income grows forever, even without the assumption of exogenous technological progress. In the Solow model, saving leads to growth temporarily, but diminishing returns to capital eventually force the economy to approach a steady state in which growth depends only on exogenous technological progress. By contrast, in this endogenous growth model, saving and investment can lead to persistent growth.

Key Concepts of Ch. 8 Efficiency of labor
Labor-augmenting technological progress Endogenous growth theory