# Memory and learning Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey.

## Presentation on theme: "Memory and learning Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey."— Presentation transcript:

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey Angela M. AuBuchon Christopher E. Zwilling Amanda L. Gilchrist (2010)

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Attend to … (‘classroom’) circlestrianglesboth equal 1: For 1.0 seconds - Fixation (‘boys’)(‘girls’) (‘boys + girls’)

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 2: For 0.5 seconds - Remember color + location

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 3: For 1.5 seconds - Retention interval

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 4: Probe display - Type 1 = No change

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 4: Probe display - Type 2 = Location change

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 4: Probe display - Type 3 = New color

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 4: Probe display - Type 4 = Other shape’s color

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Previous studies When children get older their visual working memory increases. Why? visual working memory younger childrenolder children

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Hypothesis Younger children are less able to exclude irrelevant items from working memory to make room for relevant items. working memory Younger children Older children

memory and learning martin@specken.nl An impression of the speed. Ready?

memory and learning martin@specken.nl

memory and learning martin@specken.nl

memory and learning martin@specken.nl

memory and learning martin@specken.nl

memory and learning martin@specken.nl The method 1/5 grades 1 + 2 7 – 8 years old grades 6 + 7 12 – 13 years old college students 18+ 30 participants

memory and learning martin@specken.nl The method 2/5 10 possible circles, 10 possible triangles, both in 10 colors

memory and learning martin@specken.nl 8.19 cm The method 3/5 8.19 cm

memory and learning martin@specken.nl The method 4/5, Trial condition 1-shape 1.Probe: 50% no-change 2.Probe: 25% location-change 3.Probe: 25% new-color

memory and learning martin@specken.nl The method 4/5, Trial condition 100% 1.Array: 50% attended shape, 50% other shape 2.Probe: Always the attended shape, 50% no-change, the rest divided: location-change/other color/new color

memory and learning martin@specken.nl The method 4/5, Trial condition 80% / 20% 1.Same as the 100% condition, except 2.Probe: 20% is the shape that had to be ignored 3.Probe: 40% no change

memory and learning martin@specken.nl The method 4/5, Trial condition 50% / 50% 1.Probe: 50% in location of a circle in the array 50% in location of a triangle in the array Change/No-change distribution as in 100% condition

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Proportion correct Usually-tested shapeNot-usually-tested shape 1 - Less- advanced group 2 - More-advanced group Expected capacities A: Same working memory + better filtering in group 2

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Expected capacities B: More working memory in group 2 + same filtering Proportion correct Usually-tested shapeNot-usually-tested shape 1 - Less- advanced group 2 - More-advanced group

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Expected capacities C: More working memory in group 2 + better filtering in group 2 Proportion correct Usually-tested shapeNot-usually-tested shape 1 - Less- advanced group 2 - More-advanced group

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 1/7, 1-shape condition k = No. array objects in working memory

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 2/7, 1-shape condition Clear effect groups > peak > decline age 7-8 age 12-13 age 18+

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 3/7 – 2 or 3 objects: Attention young children is adult-like? YESNO

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 4/7 – 2 or 3 objects: Significant interaction attention age? NOYES

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 5/7 – 2 objects: Large difference working memory depend on attention? NO YES NO

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 6/7 Compared with expectations

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Results 7/7 Young children filter out items as well as older? YESNO

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Nestor question Katja: “It is mentioned that working memory capacity increases during elementary school, I wonder if this means that the neural basis develops, or if it is rather due to learning how to filter information when a lot of other information are present in working memory?”

memory and learning martin@specken.nl What do you think? Would young children be able to attend experiments like this? What would it be like? How can we do this?

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Thanks for your attention

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Additional info

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Additional info

memory and learning martin@specken.nl Additional info

Bunge & Wright: “A growing literature indicates that increased recruitment of task-related areas in frontal, parietal and striatal regions underlies improvements in working memory and cognitive control over the course of middle childhood and adolescence.” memory and learning martin@specken.nl Additional info

Information on how to participate young children in experiments memory and learning martin@specken.nl Additional info