2 British Literary Movements : Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) Period: Middle English Period: The Renaissance: Elizabethan Age: Jacobean Age: Caroline Age: Commonwealth Period (or Puritan Interregnum): The Neoclassical Period: The Restoration: The Augustan Age (or Age of Pope): The Age of Sensibility (or Age of Johnson): The Romantic Period: The Victorian Period: The Pre-Raphaelites: Aestheticism and Decadence: The Edwardian Period: The Georgian Period: The Modern Period1945-present : Postmodern Period
4 Old English or The Anglo-Saxon Period British LegendsOld English or The Anglo-Saxon PeriodTheme: Heroes and Heroism
5 Importance Oral History—Lessons and entertainment British folktale Anglo Saxon time period
6 Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? Between 800 and 600 B.C., two groups of Celts from southern Europe invaded the British Isles.Brythons (now spelled “Britons”) settled on the largest Island, Britain.Gaels, settled on the second largest island, known to us as Ireland.skt.org.uk
7 Pre-Historical/Pre-Roman The island we know as England - occupied by a race of people called the Celts.One of the tribes was called Brythons or Britons (where we get the term Britain).
8 Pre-historical/Pre-Roman (con’t) Celts were pagans - believed in “animism,” from the Latin word spiritsDruids were their priestsRole: Go between the gods and the peopleFree powerpoint template:
9 The Celts farmers and hunters organized themselves into clans clans had fearsome loyalty to chieftainslooked to priests, known as Druids, to settle their disputesmeekon5.blogspot.com; no unity in the kingdom; what does this tell you? Druids often considered “magical” throughout history—religion and magic intertwined.
10 Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? Roman conquest of Britain AD 43Britain annexed as a province in the Roman EmpireDifficult to control such a large piece of landBrought Christianity to Britain around AD 300Pagan vs. Christian themes throughout; never fully indoctrinated at this timeThe last Romans left around 407 A.D.Needed to defend against rebelling European countries; England left to its own devices
11 Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? 449AD3 Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) invade.Destruction of Roman influence, including ChristianityNew land: “Angle-land”- small tribal kingdoms- no written language- supported themselves through farming and huntingEvolution of the language; linguistically; lack of unity again leaves theme vulnerable, but they do begin to destroy the Roman influence
12 Anglo Saxon King and Warrior early 7th century essentialnormanconquest.com
13 An Anglo-Saxon HallWest stow: a reconstructed site from 1972 by revising the post holse from the original site
14 An Anglo-Saxon Farmstead West Stow: reconstructed village
15 Sutton Hoo Burial site discovered in 1939 Important links to Anglo-Saxon world and BeowulfRemains of a boat were discovered and large burial chamber containing numerous artifactsArtifacts suggest a distinctly Christian element intermingled with pagan ritual.
16 The Reemergence of Christianity 596 AD: attempt to convert Anglo- Saxons to Christianity597 AD: Saint Augustineconverted King Ethelbert of Kent to Christianity.set up a monastery in Canterbury in Kent.650 AD: most of England is Christian; some hold on to previous beliefsThe church provided counsel to quarreling rulers in efforts to unify the English people.At this time, the British Isles were not unified and included separate kingdoms with separate rulers. They fought continuously over the fertile, green land.Roman Cleric St. Augustine, (not the early Christian Church father) arrived in southeast England; Romans return stronger than before and force Saxons north; we see Canterbury show up in other works; The Chruch becomes a stand in for the gov’t. A long standing tradition in England—Church of England is still a big part of the gov’t. This again sets up more conflict
17 Constant Conflict 9th Century: Norway invaded Northumbria (Anglo-Saxon kingdom in northern and central England), Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.The Danes of Denmark targeted eastern and southern England
18 Alfred the Great King of Wessex 871-899 866—resisted Danish intrusion and earned “the great”titleSaxons acknowledged Danish rule in East and NorthDanes respected Saxon rule in SouthEnd of 10th Century—Danes want to widen DanelawForced Saxons to select Danish Kings1042—Kingship returned to Alfred the Great’sdescendent EdwardEdward the Confessor died in 1066.His death led to the end of the Anglo-Saxon Period.He was great because he did keep some peace and wee see greed as a basic human instinct at this pont
19 Literature of Anglo-Saxon Times 2 major influences1) Germanic Traditions of the Anglo-Saxons2) Christian Traditions of the Roman ChurchMixed with the literature and the Celts etc are all influence because of language—3 little pigs story has changed and applies to the concepts we’ll see in this unit.
20 1) Germanic Traditions of the Anglo-Saxons Germanic language– Mixture of various Germanic dialects + Old English– Old English (often looks like a foreign language)
21 Beowulf Beowulf was written in the Anglo-Saxon era. Around the year 525.Literature was transmitted orally instead of in writing.Runic alphabet did exist - only used for inscriptions.Beowulf was result of storytelling
22 Page of Beowulf manuscript in Old English Listen to me!
23 Language in Transition “Middle Ages” Around the year 1000, Old English pronunciation changed when distinct vowel sounds at the ends of words were being dropped.Middle English differed from Old English in its greater reliance upon fewer plural forms.
24 Language in Transition “Middle Ages” Middle English was a more analytical language.Stressed word order/syntaxIncorporated “function” words—verbs
25 French Invade England October of 1066 Leading Normandy was Duke William or “William the Conqueror”, who defeated and killed the last Anglo-Saxon king. This was the beginning of the Norman Conquest.
26 Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest radically changed: English History English CharacterEnglish Language
27 William the Conqueror is known for three accomplishments: Creating the Domesday Book which was an inventory of every piece of property in England.Bringing the French language to EnglandCreating a bilingual societyUpper-Class: spoke FrenchLower-Class: spoke English3. Social System known as Feudalism
28 Feudalism & Knighthood Religious concept of hierarchy.GODKINGBARONVASSALKNIGHTSSERFS
29 Form—better known as knighthood. 2 Major impacts on England as a result of the Feudal System: Form and MannersForm—better known as knighthood.The institution of knighthood was firmlybased on the ideas of loyalty.We will see this clearly in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.He is honor-bound to accept a challenge that he knowscould bring death.
30 2nd major impact that the feudal system had on England: MannersCode of Chivalry—Courtly LoveA system of ideas and behavior codes that governed both knightand gentlewoman.
31 Three aspects that make up the Code of Chivalry Loyalty to LordYour oath, honor, and respect went directly to your lord.Warfare RuleIdea of FairnessCourtly LoveMen--mostly the knights-- idolized women. They would show this by wearing the colors of their lady in battle, to glorify her. This love for a woman was thought to make the knight a better fighter. They were inspired by women.
32 ROMANCECourtly Love provided ‘built-in’ drama for a poet or storyteller.It brought about the form of literature known as a ROMANCE: a medieval story in verse form in which a brave knight must overcome great danger for the love of a noble lady or higher idea.
33 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Composed around 1370An unknown author transformed the popular romance into great art.An alliterative romance poem. (Legend)Basic narrative pattern of a romance:Hero2. Quest—in which the hero undertakes a perilous journey in search of something of great value.3. Supernatural event
34 Sir Gawain & the Green Knight In Sir Gawain you will see the pull of sexual temptation and of life in the medieval castle.Gawain is the model of the chivalric hero whose character is being tested on:CourageFidelityMorality
35 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Purpose of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: teach us a moral lesson.Theme: To achieve nobility human beings must rely on the constant practice of a number of virtues such as:CourageHonestySelf-sacrifice
36 Sir Gawain & the Green Knight Setting (time)The mythical past of King Arthur’s Court.Setting (place)Camelot; the wilderness; Bertilak’s castle; the Green Chapel.MotifsThe seasons; games
37 Warrior vs. Knight Brave Brave Male Male Physically strong KnowledgeableoffensiveCodes they lived by…loyalty to tribal kingpersonal commitmentBoasting was acceptableKnightBraveMalePhysically strongKnowledgeable/EducateddefensiveCodes they lived by…feudalismcode of chivalryKnights were expected to be humble before others; boasting was not acceptable.
38 Geoffrey Chaucer c. 1343-1400 Considered the father of English poetry Wrote in the vernacularServed as a soldier, government servant, and member of ParliamentIntroduced iambic pentameterFirst writer buried in Westminster AbbeyLearn more about Chaucer. Go to. . .
39 Things you need to know for the Canterbury Tales: Iambic pentameterPilgrimageSatireFabliauExemplumIntroProloguePardoner’s TaleWife of Bath
40 The Canterbury Tales: Snapshot of an Age It frames a story of characters on a religious pilgrimage to Canterbury.The characters are a concise portrait of an entire nation.The pilgrimage is a quest narrative that moves from images of spring and awakening to penance, death, and eternal life.The characters tell stories that reflect “everyman” in the universal pilgrimage of life.
41 The Travelers to Canterbury Working ClassPlowmanReeveHostCookMillerHaberdasherDyerCarpenterWeaverCarpetmaker
42 The Travelers to Canterbury Professional ClassMilitaryReligiousSecularKnight, Squire, YeomanNun, 3 Priests, Friar, Parson,Pardoner, SummonerCleric, Serjeant at Law, Merchant,Skipper, Doctor
43 The Travelers to Canterbury Upper ClassWife of BathFranklin
45 Who was Malory? Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel, Warwickshire Born about 1415; died in 14701450: crime spree (murder, theft, extortion, rape)1460: released from prison; active in civil war1467: back in prison for being on the losing sideWrote Le Morte D’Arthur in prison, and it was published by William Caxton in 1485
46 15th Century England Wars of the Roses (1399-1485) Lancastrians vs. YorkistsDecades of civil warChanges in battle technologyLongbowMan in armor on horse no longer defensibleKings would no longer lead followers into battle after Richard’s defeat
47 Who was King Arthur? Celtic origins: Arthwyr as general term for a princeName may also derive from the Celtic word “art,” meaning bear (Arturus the Bear)Others argue that he was Octha, son of Hengest, who moved south and united much of the areaEarliest stories represent him as a god-like creature interacting with other deities in Welsh mythologyWelsh claims also based on his birth at Tintagel and burial at GlastonburyAlternately, High King of Britain with his origins in Brittany (Geoffrey of Monmouth)
48 Why would Malory choose King Arthur? Arthur brought order out of chaosWarfare as form of sport vs. warfare as technology aimed at widespread devastationMen heroically die in single combat, but are not slaughtered as they lie in the mudImaginary past in which nobles had absolute power over contented peasantsHero/King who will return to bring peace
49 Le Morte D’Arthur: Cultural Conflicts The stability of the society as a wholeGovernment by contract between ruler and community of nobles and commonsRule of law within class systemThe motivations of individualsPersonal goalsCourtly loveThe will to power
50 MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD: ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD:-BEOWULFMIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD:GEOFFREY CHAUCER:-THE CANTERBURY TALESSir Gawain and theGreen KnightTHOMAS MALORY:MORTE d’ARTHUR
51 1500-1660 Sir Thomas More ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: TUDOR PERIOD (Humanist Era)Sir Thomas More
52 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE THE RENAISANCE PERIOD 1500-1660 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE:The Elizabethan AgeWILLIAMSHAKESPEARE
53 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE:The Elizabethan AgeChristopherMarlowe
54 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE:The Elizabethan AgeEdmundSpenser
55 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE:The Elizabethan AgeBenJohnson
56 John DONNE 1500-1660 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Jacobean Age Metaphysical POETSJohnDONNE
57 John MILTON 1500-1660 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Caroline Age Metaphysical POETSJohnMILTON
60 The GULLIVER’S TRAVELS Neoclassical Period:The AUGUSTAN AGE:JONATHANSWIFT
61 The AGE of SENSIBILITY: Neoclassical Period:The AGE of SENSIBILITY:SAMUEL JOHNSONHENRYFIELDING
62 1785-1870 ROMANTICISM The AGE of REVOLUTION: William Blake William WordsworthS.T. ColeridgeG. G. ByronPercy B. ShelleyJohn KeatsJane Austen
63 ROMANTICISMThe AGE of REVOLUTION:Samuel Taylor Coleridge
64 ROMANTICISMThe AGE of REVOLUTION:Lord George Gordon Byron
65 1870 - 1914 Victorian Period The Bröntes Charlotte – Jane Eyre Charles DickensThe BröntesCharlotte – Jane EyreEmily – Wuthering HeightsAnne – Agnes GreyGeorge Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)Robert BrowningLord TennysonThomas Hardy
71 Virginia Woolf James Joyce 1941, the year in which Irish novelist James Joyce and English novelist Virginia Woolf both died, is sometimes used as a rough boundary for postmodernism's start.Virginia WoolfJames Joyce
72 Samuel Beckett William S. Burroughs POST-WAR LITERATUREPost-war developments in literature (such as the Theatre of the Absurd, the Beat Generation, and Magic Realism)Samuel Beckett William S. Burroughs
73 MAGIC REALISMThomas Bernhard, Peter Handke, John Fowles, Angela Carter, John Banville,John FowlesAngela Carter
74 ENGLISH & AMERICAN WRITERS TODAY Ian McEwanMargaret AtwoodDavid MitchellBritish writer Ian McEwan started winning literary awards with his first book, First Love, Last Rites (1976) and never stopped. Atonement (2002) won several awards and is being made into a movie, and Saturday (2005) won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize.The Handmaid's Tale (1985) is perhaps Atwood's best known novel and emblematic of the social criticism (Canadian)In his first novel, Ghostwritten (1999), he uses nine narrators to tell the story and 2004's Cloud Atlas is a novel comprised of six interconnected stories
75 In 2002, Smith published The Autograph Man. On Beauty (2005) Zadie SmithKazuo IshiguroShe wrote her first novel, White Teeth, while still at Cambridge and published it after graduation in 2000.In 2002, Smith published The Autograph Man.On Beauty (2005)In 2009, Smith published Changing My MindGuildford, Surrey, EnglandIn his first novel, An Artist of the Floating World (1986), Ishiguro explored the world of post World War II Japanese society.
76 American Literary Movements : Colonial Period: The Revolutionary Age: The Early National Period: The Romantic Period (Also known as: The American Renaissance or The Age of Transcendentalism): The Realistic Period: The Naturalistic Period: American Modernist Period1920s : Jazz Age, Harlem Renaissance1920s, 1930s : The "Lost Generation"1939-present : The Contemporary Period1950s : Beat Writers1960s, 1970s : CountercultureEthnic Literatures, including, but not limited to:African-American Writers Hispanic WritersNative American Writers Asian-American Writers
77 American Literary Timeline Colonial PeriodAge of ReasonRomanticismTranscendentalismAnti-TranscendentalismRealismNaturalismRegionalismModernismContemporary
79 Early Colonial Literature (Puritan) [1600-1700] CHARACTERISTICSSermonsPersonal NarrativesPlain StyleAuthority of Bible & church
80 Colonial Period Early America-1776 PuritanismPuritans definition of good writing was writing that brought home a full awareness of the importance of worshipping God and of the spiritual dangers that the soul faced on Earth, and the literature that was produced by the Puritans reflected this.Colonial Period Early America-1776
81 EARLY COLONIAL HISTORY PURITAN Person’s fate determined by God All are corrupt & must be saved by ChristSettlement of British Colonies in America
82 EARLY COLONIAL PURITAN WRITERS William Bradford Mary Rowlandson Jonathan EdwardsAnne Bradstreet
83 William Bradford ( )He was elected governor of Plymouth shortly after the pilgrims landed in on Plymouth Rock. He was essentially the first historian of the new colonies. His participation in the voyage of the Mayflower and being governor made him the ideal person for this job. He wrote Of Plymouth Plantation in 1651.Colonial Period
84 Anne Bradstreet (c )The first publication of a book of poems in America, was also the first publication by a woman in America. She also wrote The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America in 1650.Colonial Period
85 Edward Taylor (c )Taylor was a Minister who studied at Harvard College, and whose works were never published by Taylor. They were discovered in 1930s. He wrote “Huswifery” and “Upon a Spider catching a Fly.”Colonial Period
86 COLONIAL (Age of Reason) [1700-1800] CHARACTERISTICSPolitical pamphletsOrnate StylePersuasive WritingPatriotism
87 Age of Reason or Rationalism Late 1770s to Early 1800s This period was a time when authors were focused more on their own reasoning rather than simply taking what the church taught as fact. During this period there was also cultivation of patriotism. The main medium during that period were political pamphlets, essays, travel writings, speeches, and documents.Also during this period many reforms were either made or requested, for instance during this time the Declaration of Independence was written.
88 COLONIALAGE OF REASONRevolutionary WarInstructive in values
89 COLONIAL AGE OF REASON WRITERS Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Franklin Thomas PainePatrick Henry
90 Abigail Adams ( )She wrote letters that campaigned for women’s rights. Her grandson, Charles Francis Adams, published The Familiar Letters of John Adams and His Wife Abigail During the Revolution, which were just what they said they were, letters written by Abigail and her husband.Age of Reason
91 Benjamin Franklin ( )Franklin is well known worldwide for his discoveries in the world of science and his theories on electricity. He is known for his autobiography and considered the Father of the Autobiography. He wrote aphorisms in Poor Richard’s Almanac.Age of Reason
92 Thomas Jefferson ( )Jefferson is best know for writing the Declaration of Independence; the document came about as a response to the times. People were thinking for themselves, and one of the major idea the Americans discovered was that they didn’t need England. So Jefferson wrote the document to formally state the colonies’ intent to form a new nation.Age of Reason
93 Thomas Paine ( )Paine wrote mostly pamphlets that would spur ideas and immediate action. In the document "The American Crisis," Paine wrote about the oppression that America suffered from Britain, and propelled America into a war with Britain. Paine, to this day, is well known for his propaganda.Age of Reason
94 RomanticismAfter the “Age of Reason” came to an end, the people of America were tired of reality; they wanted to see life as more than it was. This was the Era of Romantics. The main medium that presented itself at that time were short stories, poems, and novels. During this era, as appose to the “Age of Reason” the imagination dominated; intuition ruled over fact, and there was a large emphasis on the individual/common man, and on nature or the natural world.Dark Romanticism or Gothic literature was also introduced at this time, which is a sub-genre of Romanticism, this genre included stories about characters that had both good and evil traits. Gothic literature also incorporated to use of supernatural elements.
95 VALUE FEELING & INTUITION OVER REASON ROMANTICISM [ ]CHARACTERISTICSVALUE FEELING & INTUITION OVER REASONIMAGINATIONMYSTERYSLAVE NARRATIVESPOETRYSHORT STORIES
96 ROMANTICISM HISTORY Expansion of magazines, np, and book publishing Slavery debatesIndustrial Revolution: “old ways” of doing things are now irrelevant
97 ROMANTICISM WRITERS William Cullen Bryant Paul Laurence Dunbar Nathaniel HawthorneEmily Dickinson
98 James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) Cooper was greatly influenced throughout his life by his natural surroundings. Cooper also wrote a five-novel series called the Leatherstocking Tales: the stories are The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). He is the Father of the American Hero.Free powerpoint template:
99 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) Member of the “Fireside Poets”Longfellow's poems are also highly regular in their form.Easy to read and memorableComposed “Song of Hiawatha”,“Paul Revere’s Ride”“Psalm of Life”“The Day Is Done”Free powerpoint template:
100 William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) Composed “To a Waterfowl” and “Thanatopsis”One of the founders of the Republican party and supporter of LincolnFree powerpoint template:
101 Dark RomanticsDark Romantics focused on the limitations of mankind, and its potential destructiveness of the human spirit. For instance, water brings life, but it’s excess, i.e. a flood, can bring death and destruction. (Notice how they sometimes use nature in their writings to reflect what goes in with humans. Example: Scarlet Letter and the forest – reflect Pearl’s wild nature; only place Hester and Dimmesdale can be free, etc.)
102 DARK ROMANTICISM [1840-1855] CHARACTERISTICS Self is the only thing that can be known or verified.The focus on the tragic.The belief in sin and evil.An attention paid to the mysteries of life.A reverence for human nature, and all its struggles.
104 DARK ROMANTICISM DARK ROMANTIC WRITERS Edgar Allan Poe Herman Melville Washington Irving
105 Washington Irving ( )Irving was the first “famous” American author; he’s also known as the “Father of American Literature.” He wrote travel books, short stories, and satires. Some of his works include: Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Rip Van Winkle, and Devil and Tom Walker.Romanticism
106 Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) Romanticism Poe had a bad childhood that made him despise the world, and his works reflected his work. He is credited for creating the modern short story, and the detective story. He also challenged two long-standing theories, one, a poem had to be long, and two, a poem had to teach you something. Some of his works include, "The Raven", "Bells", "Annabel Lee", and "Dream."Romanticism
107 Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) Hawthorne was a Puritan who utilized his writings to express his dark, and gloomy outlook on life. Some of his works include; Twice Told Tales, published in 1837; The Scarlet Letter, published in 1850; and The House of the Seven Gables, published in 1851.Anti-TranscendentalismRomanticism
108 Herman Melville ( )In his time Melville was not entirely recognized, however, in the more recent years he has been considered one of the most top rated novelist of all time. He is most well known for his epic novel Moby Dick.RomanticismAnti-Transcendentalism
110 TRANSCENTDENTALISM WRITERS TRANSCENDENTALISMTRANSCENTDENTALISM WRITERSRalph Waldo EmersonHenry David ThoreauAmbrose Alcott
111 TranscendentalismThis movement pushed America from the elaborate and fantasy like writings displayed in the period Romanticism, into a period of literature that stressed individualism, and mature and self-reliance. Often Transcendentalists used nature to gain knowledge or to return to a life of self-reliance and individualism. It also stressed the fundamental idea of a unity between God and the world, that each person was a microcosm for the world..
112 Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Emerson had a strong sense of a religious mission though he was accused of subverting Christianity. He left the church saying, “to be a good minister, it was necessary to leave the church.” Some of his mayor works include Nature and Self-Reliance published in 1836.Transcendentalism
113 Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Thoreau Lived his life, to do just that, live his life. He was never rich and for the most part lived with little money all his life. His work he is most well known for is Walden, published in 1854.Transcendentalism
114 REALISM/ REGIONALISM/ NATURALISM HISTORY[ ]Civil War & post Civil WarInfluence of Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx & Charles DarwinDemand for “truer” type of lit. that does not idealize people or places
116 REALISM 1865-1915 life presented with fidelity fidelity in presenting the inner workings of the mind the analysis of thought and feeling set in present or recent past commonplace characters exposed political corruption, economic inequity, business deception, the exploitation of labor, women rights problems, racial inequity described the relationship between the economic transformation of America and its moral condition
117 REALISM WRITERS Walt Whitman Ambrose Bierce Stephen Crane Frederick Douglas
118 Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) Naturalism One of Dreiser's favorite fictional devices was the use of contrast between the rich and the poor, the urbane and the unsophisticated, and the power brokers and the helpless. Some of his works include: Twelve Men, published in 1919; A Book About Myself, published in 1922; The Color of a Great City, published in 1923; An American Tragedy, published in 1925.Naturalism
119 James Henry (1843-1916 ) Realism His father was an important theorist and lecturer, and his older brother was a famous American philosopher, William James. He attended Harvard College. His early stories depict the leisurely life of the well-to-do. In his time he wrote many short stories including: “The Short Story of a Year,” published in 1865; “Gabrielle de Bergerac,” published in 1869; and “Guest's Confession.”Realism
120 REGIONALISM [1860-1900] CHARACTERISTICS Focuses on characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features specific to a certain region (eg. the South)Coincided with Realism and sharing many of the same traits.Prominent from
121 REGIONALISM WRITERS Mark Twain Sarah Orne Jewett Willa Cather Kate ChopinEdith Wharton
122 Mark Twain [Samuel Clemens] (1835-1910) Twain is know by many as the greatest American humorist and one of our greatest novelists. He was known for using vernacular, exaggeration, and deadpan narrator to create humor. Twain wrote many great novels including, the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Prince and the Pauper..Realism
123 Sarah Orne Jewett ( )Jewett grew up with books all around her, it was only fitting she grow up to be a writer. The early years of her life were much like the story she wrote in A Country Doctor. Some of her works include; Miss Tempy's Watchers, originally published in 1888; The Dulham Ladies, originally published in 1886; “A White Heron,” originally published in 1886.Realism
124 Willa Cather (1873-1947) Regionalism Cather has been called, one of the most interesting female writers in American literary history. She was a teacher, a journalist and a critic as well as a writer. She has a talent for presenting settings, and characters that are rich in language and imagery. She also won a Pulitzer Prize. Some of her works include: April Twilights, Death Comes for the Archbishop, My Antonia, and O Pioneers!, published in 1913.Regionalism
125 Kate Chopin ( )Chopin loved literature as a child, and secluded herself in it after her grandmothers death. She never achieved much until 1884 when she finally decided to pursue a career in writing. Some of her writing included: "Desiree’s Baby," “Story of an Hour” and The Awakening.Regionalism
126 NATURALISMPeople are hapless victims of immutable natural laws.Naturalism is closely related to realism only it usually views the world in a darker perspective.Free will is an illusionCharacters’ lives are shaped by forces they cannot control.
127 REALISM/ REGIONALISM/ NATURALISM WRITERSStephen CraneJack London
128 Stephen Crane ( )Crane’s writing was known for attacking patriotism, individualism, and organized religion; it also confronted the meaninglessness of the world. His work was also very well known for its imagery and symbolism. The work he is most famous for Red Badge of Courage, which was set in the Civil War. Some of his other works include; The Open Boat, published in 1894; “An Episode of War,” originally published in 1890.Naturalism
129 Jack London ( )London was born in San Francisco, California; he lived a hard life, switching from job to job for whatever money he could get, after his father abandoned him at a young age. He is one of the most highly acclaimed writers of all time; his stories of life and death struggles are vivid and engaging. Some of his works include; The Call of the Wild, published in 1903; White Fang, published in 1906; “Lost Face,” published in 1910; and “The Night Born,” published in 1913.Naturalism
130 “Jazz Age”/ “Roaring 20’s” MODERNISMHISTORY[ ]WWI & WWII“Jazz Age”/ “Roaring 20’s”Harlem RenaissanceThe Great DepressionKarl Marxrise of youth culture
131 Use of interior monologue & stream of consciousness MODERNISMCHARACTERISTICSPessimism“American Dream”ImagismLost GenerationBeat GenerationUse of interior monologue & stream of consciousnessPlays, Poetry, Novels
132 William Carlos Williams MODERNISMWRITERSF. Scott FitzgeraldRobert FrostT.S. ElliotJohn SteinbeckWilliam FaulknerLangston HughesW.E.B. DuBoisEzra PoundWilliam Carlos WilliamsArthur Miller*
133 William Faulkner ( )He served in both the Canadian and the British Royal Air Force. He wrote most of his novel on a farm in Oxford, Mississippi. Some of his novels included; The Hamlet, Absalom Absalom, The Town, and The Mansion.Regionalism
134 Ernest Hemingway ( )Hemingway won a Pulitzer Prize and Noble Peace Price for Literature. He used concise, direct, spare, objective, precise, rhythmic writing styles to create larger than life heroes, big game hunters, etc. Some of his works include: The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell To Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls.Modernism
135 F. Scott Fitzgerald ( )Fitzgerald wrote about the times. In his novel The Great Gatsby, published in 1925, he wrote about the roaring twenties, a time when no one cared about the future and they had fun with what they had then. Some of his other works include: The Side of Paradise, and The Beautiful and the Damned.Modernism
136 John Steinbeck (1902-1968) Modernism Steinbeck wrote about the both the pains and joys of life. The Grapes of Wrath, his most well known work told the story of families ring to survive and stay together during the depression. In other works like Tortilla Flat, Steinbeck wrote about the joys of life. Some of his other works include: East of Eden, and Of Mice and Men, and The Pearl.Modernism
137 Robert Frost ( )America’s best known and most loved poet, Frost wrote his poems in a traditional verse form. He used the plain speech of rural New Englanders. Some of his works include: “Death of the Hired Man,” “Birches,” and “The Road Not Taken.”Modernism
138 HARLEM RENAISSANCE 1920s Literary movement parallel to Modernism. It focused on African American thought and community.Civil rights and equality were major themes of Harlem Renaissance writing.During this period African Americans were for the first time recognized as artists, writers and musicians.
140 Countee Cullen (1903-1946) poet, novelist, playwright “Yet I Do Marvel”“Incident”
141 Claude McKay (1889-1948) “America” “If We Must Die” photo by James L. Allen
142 Langston Hughes (1902-1967) “Dreams” “Harlem” “The Weary Blues”
143 Zora Neal Hurston (1891 - 1960) Writer, Folklorist, Anthropologist Their Eyes Were Watching God
144 James Baldwin“My Dungeon Shook: Letter to My Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Emancipation” (1963)American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet and social critic.
145 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com W.E.B. DuBoisFelt talented black students should get a classical educationFelt it was wrong to expect citizens to “earn their rights”Founded the NAACP along with other black and white leadersFree powerpoint template:
146 POST-MODERNISM/ CONTEMPORARY CHARACTERISTICS[1950 ]Mix of fantasy w/ non-fictionMedia culture interprets valuesNarrativesAnti-HeroesEmotion-ProvokingHumorous IronyStorytellingAutobiographiesIndividual IsolationSocial Issues (ethnic & feminist)
147 POST-MODERNISM/ CONTEMPORARY HISTORYPost WWII prosperityNew century & millenniumSpace explorationKorean WarVietnam WarGulf WarWTC/ 9-11Iraqi WarAdvances in technology
148 Post Modernism/Contemporary 1950-present That’s exactly what has happened, there are more different types of writing being done at one time than at any other period in history;Fantasy, Fiction,Science Fiction, Horror,Political Writings, Romantics,Plays, & Poems,Anything And Everything.