# Option G – Electromagnetic waves

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Option G – Electromagnetic waves

Lesson 1 Outline the nature of electromagnetic (EM) waves.
Describe the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Describe what is meant by the dispersion of EM waves. Describe the dispersion of EM waves in terms of the dependence of refractive index on wavelength.

Nature of electromagnetic waves

Nature of electromagnetic waves
An oscillating electric charge produces varying electric and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves and all have the same speed in a vacuum.

Electromagnetic spectrum
λ ≈ nm λ ≈ m λ ≈ m λ ≈ m λ ≈ m λ ≈ m λ ≈ m

Source of electromagnetic waves?
You have 15 minutes to take notes from pages 600 and 601 about how different EM waves are produced.

Type Source Radio Vibrating electrons e.g. AC current Microwaves Excited semiconductors or vibrating electrons Infra-red Electrons transitions between energy levels Visible Ultraviolet X Ray Emitted when decelerate rapidly electrons e.g. when they hit a metal target Gamma Emitted by nuclei after a nuclear reaction Type Source Radio Microwaves Infra-red Visible Ultraviolet X Ray Gamma

Dispersion Let’s make rainbows!

A reminder - Snell’s law
speed in substance 1 sinθ1 speed in substance 2 sinθ2 =

A reminder - Snell’s law
In the case of light only, we usually define a quantity called the index of refraction for a given medium as n = c cm where c is the speed of light in a vacuum and cm is the speed of light in the medium c vacuum cm

Dispersion This occurs because the index of refraction of the glass changes with wavelength. The index of refraction is slightly smaller for red light than it is for blue light, so the red light gets bent less.

Dispersion

Just one question! Page 605 Question 3