Presentation on theme: "A Systems Approach to Egg Shell Quality Assurance DINATEC Diversified Nutri-Agri Technologies Inc."— Presentation transcript:
A Systems Approach to Egg Shell Quality Assurance DINATEC Diversified Nutri-Agri Technologies Inc.
A nutrient supplement for stressed and/or older laying hens of all types including light and heavy breeder hens. WHAT IS Ovum Plus A unique combination of organic minerals, vitamins, cultured material and other technologies that make Ovum Plus a great investment. A nutritional supplement that provides the extra nutrients that stressed and/or older hens need for egg shell formation. OVUM - PLUSs success story is it gets the trace minerals, organic minerals, vitamins and other important nutrients to the hen and helps her with shell formation.
Even though Ovum Plus contains between 19-21% Calcium, it is not technically deigned to function as a direct source of Calcium. This available Calcium in Ovum Plus is nonetheless a valuable component given that we know Calcium makes up between 38%-40% of the eggshell by weight, (Between 2.2-2.4 grams per egg). An absolute Calcium value by itself is not enough. Ovum Plus is not just another Calcium source The increase of Calcium and /or Phosphorous levels alone will not have an impact in improving egg shell quality (Kashavarz and Nakajima, 1993). Ovum Plus works in both a direct and indirect mode of action.
Extensive studies have been conducted to determine optimal Calcium levels for the formation of egg shells (Keshavarz, 1995). HOW MUCH CLCIUM IS ENOUGH CALCIUM? Physiological changes in the hen should be the main criteria for varying Calcium levels from one type of formulation, for example grower, to another type say layer. The conclusion is that a Calcium level of 3.75-4.00 grams is required daily for optimal egg shell formation. Consideration must be given to adequate residence time in the digestive system of the adequate Calcium levels.
THE EGG SHELL GLAND After the secretion of the shell membrane, the shell is formed in the shell gland. This process requires anywhere from between 19-20 hours, (Austic and Nesheim, 1990). We have technically positioned Ovum Plus to perform in a higher realm of both direct and indirect physiological activity.
One of the most important technical contributions of Ovum Plus is based on its unique combination of proteinated minerals. OVUM PLUS AND PROTEINATED MINERALS These proteinated minerals can be absorbed at much higher levels that the inorganic counterparts. This facilitates the Calcium transport system from the digestive system to the skeletal system and from the skeletal system to the shell forming gland.
This improvement in Ca transport is accomplished in several ways. 1. At higher absorption levels less minerals are needed and therefore less competition for adsorption sites of the various competing minerals. 2. Some inorganic minerals, for example Zinc, are not readily absorbed by the hen and therefore can result in reduced, impaired or no enzymatic activity for the related co-dependant enzymes. 3. Minerals that are enabled in the hens physiology are then able to activate codependent chemical processes, (enzymatic transformation)
Zinc Proteinate Example of one of the functionalities of Ovum Plus via one of many organic minerals Zinc Proteinate. This is a brief discussion of one of the functionalities of Ovum Plus. We will not discuss all of them here for proprietary reasons. In addition to Calcium ions, the shell gland requires the presence of Carbonate ions in the glandular fluid in sufficient quantities so that the required egg shell component, Calcium Carbonate can be formed. As we know, Calcium Carbonate is an important component of the egg shell, (Autic and Nesheim, 1990).
Calcium Carbonate deficiencies are one of the main culprits in relationship to the problems associated with egg shell quality, (Balnave, 1996). How can Ovum Plus help in this situation? One of the most critical sources for Carbonate ions for egg shell formation is the carbon dioxide produced during normal cellular metabolism in the shell forming gland or from the blood of the hen. The enzyme Carbonic anhydrase plays a significant role in egg shell formation, ( Belnave, 1192 and 1996). This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the formation of bicarbonate ions from carbon dioxide and water.
The activity or lack thereof of this enzyme will therefore affect egg shell quality. The above gives us an understanding of the important role played by Carbonic anhydrase in egg shell formation. The fact that Zinc is a co-dependant factor for this enzyme gives an an idea of the importance of the bio-availability of this mineral for this crucial task.
Calcium will compete for absorption sites with Zinc, Copper and Manganese. This is why formulas that are excessively high in Calcium can indirectly inhibit the Carbonic anhydrase enzyme due to their competition for absorption sites with Zinc. To further aggravate this problem, it has been demonstrated that inorganic Zinc is not absorbed very well by the hen whereas good quality organic, (proteinated) Zinc is (Lowe, 1990). Lowe, demonstrated that Zinc obtained from inorganic sources has an antagonistic effect to the effect of Calcium which ultimately interferes with Zinc absorption itself, (Lowe, 1996). Proteinated Zinc is absorbed at a much higher level than inorganic Zinc sources even in the presence of high levels of Calcium (Lowe, 1996).
Studies show an improvement in egg shell quality as measured in terms of egg shell strength, specific gravity and shell thickness in conjunction with the use of specific high quality forms of proteinated Zinc at the correct ratio.
References: Austic, R.E. and M.C. Nesheim. 1990. In: Poultry Production. 13 th Edition. Lea & Febiger. Philadelphia, London. Pp 47-55. Balnave, D. 1996. Carbonate limitation as a cause of poor egg shell quality. In: Arkansas Nutrition Conference Proceedings of the Meeting. September 10-12. Balnave, D., N. Usayyran El-Khatib and D. Zhang. 1992. Poultry Sci. 71:2035- 2040 (as cited by Balnave, 1996). Keshavarz, K. 1995. An overview of calcium and phosphorous nutrition of growing pullets and laying hens. In: Proceedings of the Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed manufacturers. October 24-26, Rochester N.Y. pp. 161- 170. Klecker, D., L. Zeman and J. Gomez-Basauri. 1997. Influence of trace mineral proteinate supplementation on eggshell quality. Presented at Southern Poultry Science, January 20, Atlanta, GA. Lowe, J.A. 1996. An investigation into the metabolism of supplemental protected zinc with reference to the use of isotopes.
EGG SHELL IMPROVEMENT AND RECUPERATION TECHNOLOGY Thin, weak, rough, & poor textured shells cause a great economic loss. The percentage of cracked eggs at the grading stations for most operations will range between 5-8%. This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that during the washing and grading processes more eggs are broken. This 5-8% cracked eggs as the result of poor eggshell quality and faulty handling by the producer, will have a projected annual loss of at least US$25,000 for every 100,000 hens in production.
Shell quality problems usually occur during times of stress and/or as the hen becomes older. It is thought that stressed and/or older hens do not absorb the nutrients needed for shell formation as well as younger hens. Hence, older hens respond to supplemental feeding of nutrients to improve shell quality. OVUM - PLUS can be mixed in the feed to help reduce losses from undergrades and cracked eggs.
CAUSES OF CRACKED EGGS Genetics Some genetic strains of birds have the ability to produce eggs with better shells. However, as strains are bred and selected for better egg production, there is a tendency toward a reduction in eggshell quality. The first eggs of a clutch possess better shell quality than those laid later in clutch. As high producing hens must have longer clutches, the correlation between clutch length and poorer shell quality is obvious. This problem cannot be addressed through normal nutritional practices as doing so would entail gearing formulas for the weaker eggs which would be costly. Ovum Plus can be helpful for a top-laying hen during peak production. Position of Egg Within a Clutch
Length of Lay The longer the period of egg production, the poorer the shell quality becomes. This has to do with the hens inability to transport the needed nutrients for eggshell formation as she gets older. Temperature The higher the environmental temperature, the poorer the quality of the eggshells. When high temperatures occur at the end of the laying period, both factors work to decrease shell quality. At these particular instances, it is of foremost importance to give the older stressed hen as much help as possible. Disease Respiratory diseases such as bronchitis & Newcastle have a marked effect on shell quality. Eggshell Breaking Strength Good shell quality requires from 6 to 8 lbs. of pressure to break the eggs. Poor shell quality only 5 lbs. Normally, eggs laid at the end of the laying period will break with 5 lbs. or less of pressure. WHY EGGS CRACK
Reducing the number of cracked and lost eggs should be a real important project for all poultry farms. The first step is to determine what the present breakage is, and then start a campaign to reduce it. Keeping detailed records and plotting the progress on graph paper is a very helpful and needed tool. Lets list some of the methods we can use in order to reduce the incidence of cracked and lost eggs:  North, Mack O. 1972. Commercial Chicken Production Manual, The Avi Publishing Company, INC., pgs. 277-278. How to Reduce Egg Breakage
Genetics Some strains of egg-type layers produce a higher percentage of cracked eggs. Make a judicious choice when selecting the genetic supplier. Employee Education Program Start an employee-education program to stress the economic importance of how to reduce egg breakage. Candle eggs gathered by different personnel, and compare results for further feedback. HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE Egg Handling Handle eggs more carefully at the end of the laying period.
Egg Collection Collect eggs from cages more often. Eggs rolling down to the floor have a greater chance of creating breakage if there are eggs in the receiving area. It is estimated that at least one-half of the breakage is due to this. Birds per Cage Try some cages with fewer birds. Crowding increases egg breakage. It may be that an excessive number of cracked eggs are canceling the additional income from more birds per cage. HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE Cushion Bumpers Provide a cushion bumper at the front of the egg collection area.
Stress Reduction Reduce every stress possible; stresses lower shell quality in most cases and therefore increase egg breakage. Supplement your ration during these times with Ovum Plus. Egg Collection Collect eggs on flats to avoid an extra handling. If baskets must be used, do not fill them over half full. Change of Ration Consider changing the ration or adding Ovum Plus if poor shell quality is a continuous problem. HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE
Automatic Egg Gathering Equipment Be sure any automatic egg-gathering equipment does not produce an increase in egg breakage. Check the belt material, the speed of the belts, and any angling or corner devices Reduce Bird Fright Reduce bird fright. Sporadic movements and jumping of birds in the cages can only create more eggs that are cracked. HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE Cannibalism Prevent cannibalism. It often causes birds to pick at freshly laid eggs. Check on the light intensity. Higher than needed intensity can incite cannibalism.
Use Ovum Plus Whenever there is any kind of unusual stress supplement your feed ration with at least 2 lbs, (1 kg) to not more than 8 lbs, (4 kg) of Ovum Plus per ton, (metric ton) of feed.
OVUM PLUS is a convenience package. It lets you add extra nutrients, without reformulation, to help stressed and/or older hens with shell formation. OVUM PLUS IS NOT A CALCIUM PRODUCT. NO CHANGES ARE REQUIRED IN FORMULATION, not even calcium. If the hens are consuming between 3.5 and 4.5 grams calcium per day, OVUM PLUS can be added to the rations without formulation changes. OVUM PLUS is a non-medicated product.
The proof of any product is in its field performance. What Results Can You Expect? Give OVUM PLUS a chance to help you with your shell quality problems. You will be glad you did. It is convenient and simple. Producers tell us you can expect better shells, save more lost eggs, & reduce mortality up to 4%. OVUM PLUS has proven itself around the world.
This early OVUM PLUS program helps pullets come into production with extra nutrients. Add 1 kg, (2lbs.) Of OVUM PLUS per ton to your complete feed when new pullets are housed (18 - 21 weeks of age) and continue for 5 weeks. EARLY OVUM PLUS PROGRAM Then at 46 weeks of age, add 1 kg, (2 lbs) of OVUM PLUS per ton until the end of lay.
Prior to an anticipated eggshell problem, or when the hens have reached 4 to 5 months of lay, add I kg ( 2 lbs.) of OVUM PLUS per ton of complete ration, and feed to end of lay. PREVENTIVE PROGRAM Just add OVUM PLUS, no other ration changes are necessary.
then 1 kg, (2 lbs.) per ton until end of lay. TREATMENT PROGRAM When a shell problem has developed, add 4 kg (8 lbs.) of OVUM PLUS per ton for one week, then 2 kg, (4 lbs.) per ton for one week,
When birds have reached 50% production, MOLTED BIRDS add 1 kg, (2 lbs.) OVUM PLUS per ton of complete ration, and continue feeding until end of lay.
Economic analysis for using Ovum Plus The price differential in the U.S.A. between cracked eggs and intact eggs is > $.75/dozen or $1.50 per hen.
Reductions in egg shell damage would not only improve returns to the producer it would increase the egg handling efficiency. Reductions in shell breakage and egg loss of 2% would be equivalent to approximately ½ dozen per hen per year, equivalent to +35¢ per hen. Based on research conducted by Castaldo (1994) giving a summary on animal populations and feed use there are over 20 million laying hens in the states. Therefore an improvement in shell quality of 2% would be equivalent to $7 million per year in the US alone.
OVUM PLUS can be used on stressed and older hens of any species. OVUM PLUS will benefit broiler breeders, turkey breeders, pheasants, and quail. Four more hatching eggs per Broiler Breeder hen have been reported. DOES IT PAY? One ton of OVUM PLUS will feed 62,500 birds for approximately five months, at 1 KG, ( 2 lbs.) per ton continuously. If OVUM PLUS gets an extra egg in 5 months lay, it pays.
With 1 kilogram of Ovum Plus you can feed approximately 20 hens during the entire production cycle. If 20 hens can recoup $1.85 each or $37.00 total, then the return on investment for Ovum Plus will be from 12:1 to at least 6:1.
Note: Ovum Plus can be added after the 46th week of lay to insure that older hens will be able to lay eggs with better shells and less cracks. Experience the extra profits in your own operation by using Ovum Plus in your current or next egg laying production cycle. Add Ovum Plus during peak lay and periods of stress like vaccination, disease, mycotoxicosis challenges, extra heat etc. for better egg shells & more total eggs per hen.
Item Minimum % Maximum% Calcium(Ca) 19.00 21.50 Salt 01.24 01.26 Sodium(Na) 00.99 01.02 Zinc(Zn) Not less than 1.0 % Magnesium(Mg) Not less than 0.9 % Guaranteed Analysis
Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin A, Vitamin D-3, Niacin, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin E, Riboflavin, lysine Ferrous Carbonate, Iron Proteinate, Calcium Proteinate, Zinc Proteinate, Cobalt Proteinate, Ethoxiquin (preservative), Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium Oxide, Sodium Bicarbonate, Salt, Manganous Oxide, Copper Sulfate, EDDI, Magnesium Proteinate, Manganese Proteinate, Copper Proteinate dried yeast culture and Mineral oil. Ingredient List
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