Presentation on theme: "Foam System Testing And Calibration"— Presentation transcript:
1 Foam System Testing And Calibration Today’s ProgramFoam System Testing And Calibration
2 Your Presenters Are… Jim Johannessen Bill Ballantyne Fire Equipment Services Group of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. for the past 26 yearsMember of the NFPA 1901 (Automotive Apparatus) and 1500 (Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health) CommitteesBill BallantyneVice President – FoamPro (16 years)President Fire Apparatus Manufacturers Association (2004)NFPA 1901 Committee Principal Member (FAMA)Chairman – Foam Technical Committee
3 Disclaimer… This is not an official NFPA presentation No committee member can speak for the NFPAMembers can only give their opinion
4 NFPA Standards Compliance with standards is Voluntary They are Minimum standardsThey are Consensus standardsCommittee work is voluntary – No Pay
5 NFPA Standards… Editions are reviewed and updated every 5 years Editions can be “short-cycled” to address significant developments or changesA TIA (Temporary Interim Amendment) can be implemented to address issues that may ariseOver 250 standards in the NFPA system
6 NFPA Standards… Main body is mandatory…SHALL Annex material is recommended… SHOULD
7 NFPA Apparatus Committee NFPA 1901 Committee is responsible for:1901: FD Apparatus1906: Wildland Apparatus1911: In-Service Testing, Maintenance and Replacement1912: Refurbishment
8 NFPA Apparatus Committee… Committee balance is mandatory1/3 Fire Service (10)1/3 Manufacturers (10)1/3 Experts, Specialists, Testing (10)
9 NFPA Apparatus Committee… Almost all current members have been in the fire serviceChairman is always a fire service officerChief Don Frazeur, LAFD
10 One Last Word About The Standard Everything in 1901 is there for a reason!Usually something undesirable has happened:A firefighter has been injured or worse, killedPay attention – they could save your life!
11 NFPA 1901 2009 Edition Now available. Order at: Applies to all orders signed after January 1, 2009
13 Proportioning Rates Ratio of concentrate to water Expressed as a percentage1.0% = 1 unit of concentrate to 99 units of water3.0% = 3 units of concentrate to 97 units of water0.5% = 0.5 unit of concentrate to 99.5 units of water
14 Common Proportioning Rates Class A0.1% - 1.0%Class B1%, 3%, 6%(1% x 3%), (3% x 6%), (3% x 3%) (Hydrocarbons x Polar Solvent fuels)Emulsifiers / GelsVaries by manufacturer / usage
15 NFPA 1901 and 1906 Now Require…For proportioning rates equal or greater than 1%:- 0% to + 30% or 1 percentage point, whichever is less ( )For proportioning rates less than 1%:- 0% to + 40% ( )6%30%20%10%3%1%-+40%LeanRichAllowable Range:6%: 6.0 – 7.0%3%: %1%: 1.0 – 1.3%0.5%: – 0.70%0.2%: – 0.28%
16 Why Is Accuracy So Important? PerformanceAbility to make wet, fluid or dry foam (Class A foam)Ability to richen for heavy rain (Class B foam)Ability to seal (Class B foam)LogisticsCostEnvironmental Concerns (Class B)
18 Manufacturer’s Responsibilities – What to Expect Chapter Four of NFPA 1901 requires:If the apparatus has a foam proportioning system, the foam proportioning system manufacturer’s certification of accuracy (see ) and the final installer’s certification the foam proportioning system meets this standard(see )
19 Labels and Instruction Plates An instruction plate shall be provided for the foam proportioning system that includes, at a minimum, a piping schematic of the system and basic operating instructions.
20 Labels and Instruction Plates Foam classification typeMaximum and minimum proportioning rates (percent)Maximum and minimum waterflow [gpm (L/min)]Maximum and minimum operating pressuresThe statement “Use only concentrates that are compatible with this foam proportioning system. Refer to the foam proportioning system manufacturer’s operating manual.”
21 Foam Proportioning System Accuracy. The foam proportioning system shall be type tested and certified by the foam proportioning system manufacturer to be accurate throughout the foam proportioning system’s declared range of waterflow, water pressure, foam percentage (or foam proportioning system capacity), and concentrate viscosity.
22 The methods of testing a foam proportioning system for calibration accuracy. Substituting water for foam concentrateMeasuring foam concentrate pump output directlyDetermining foam percentage by use of a refractometerDetermining foam percentage by use of a conductivity meter
23 How Accurate Are These Test Methods? Volumetric is most accurate (and least expensive)Measuring equipment must be calibrated correctlyFoam viscosities may effect your results if you are substituting water for foamConditions may not lend themselves to using refractometer or conductivity
24 Substituting water for foam concentrate The proportioning system is operated at the waterflow rates at which the system is to be tested.Using water as a foam substitute draw from a separate calibrated tank rather than the foam concentrate tank.The volume of water drawn from the calibrated tank divided by the volume of water pumped over the same time period multiplied by 100 represents the percentage of foam the proportioning system is producing.
25 Measuring foam concentrate pump output directly With the foam proportioning system operating at a given waterflow rate and either foam concentrate or water used as a substitute for foam concentrate, the output of the foam concentrate pump is measured by diverting that output into a calibrated container for direct measurement over a given period of time. An alternative is to measure the foam concentrate flow or water substitute with a calibrated meter.
26 Determining Foam Percentage by Use of a Refractometer. This test determines the accuracy of a foam system’s proportioning equipment by measuring the percentage concentration of a foam concentrate in the foam solution.
27 Determining Foam Percentage by Use of a Refractometer. The amount of foam concentrate in the solution is measured with a refractometer.A base calibration curve is first drawn using the samples of foam concentrate and water taken from the foam system.Samples of the actual foam solution produced by the system are then tested and plotted on the graph.The results must fall within the parameters set by NFPA
28 Determining Foam Percentage by Use of a Conductivity Meter. The conductivity test method is based on changes in electrical conductivity as foam concentrate is added to water.The accuracy of this type of testing will deteriorate as the conductivity of the water and concentrate approach each other.
29 Measuring Foam Output Using The Volumetric Method
30 InstrumentationThe instruments on the right of the ruler are conductivity meters and the instrument on the left is a refractometer
31 NFPA 1911 Standard for the Inspection, Maintenance, Testing, and Retirement of In-Service Automotive Fire Apparatus2007 Edition
32 Performance Testing Of Foam Proportioning Systems (1911) 20.1 Test to determine if capable of delivering foam for the agents usedTested at least annuallyInspect all components20.2 Operated at % specified by AHJ at flows and pressures for the agent(s) usedMeasure calibration accuracyUse same test points for every test20.3 Acceptable Testing Methods20.4 Test all concentrates carried20.5 Meet accuracy level in effect during install
35 NFPA 1901 Purchaser Requirements The purchaser shall specify the following:Range of waterflows and pressuresProportioning ratesTypes of concentrate(s) (Class A, Class B, etc)Brand and viscosity of concentrate
36 20.10 Foam Proportioning System Accuracy (1901 and 1906) The foam proportioning system shall be type tested and certified by the foam proportioning system manufacturer to be accurate throughout the foam proportioning system’s declared range of water flow, water pressure, foam percentage (or foam proportioning system capacity), and concentrate viscosity.
37 Foam Percentage or Foam Proportioning System Capacity Test Points for (Manufacturer’s) Certification of Foam Proportioning System Performance (1901 and 1906)WaterflowWater PressureFoam Percentage or Foam Proportioning System CapacityMinimumMaximumMidrange
38 3-D Description Of Terms Water FlowWater PressureFoam OutputMaximum / Maximum / MaximumMidrangeMinimum / Minimum / Minimum
39 20.11 Testing and Documentation The final installer shall test and certify the following:The foam proportioning system, as installed, complies with the foam manufacturer’s installation recommendations.The foam proportioning system has been calibrated and tested to meet the foam equipment manufacturer’s and the purchaser’s specifications.At a minimum, the foam proportioning system has been tested at the points defined in Table for each foam system injection point.
40 Foam Percentage or Foam Proportioning System Capacity Test Points for Installation Testing of Foam Proportioning System Performance (1901 and 1906)WaterflowWater PressureFoam Percentage or Foam Proportioning System CapacityMidrangeMinimumMaximum
42 Performance Testing A FoamPro Most accurate test method is volumetric.Measure water by either flow or volumeFlow using a pitot gaugeVolume using a calibrated containerMeasure foam by volume or flowFlow using a calibrated flow meter
43 Tools Required Pitot gauge for measuring water flow Calibrated container for collecting foam (water)Pressure gauge with load valve to set “back pressure”Stop watch
45 Pressure Gauge / Load Valve Assembly To Simulate Back Pressure In Foam Line Plumb to calibrate side of Cal / Inject ValveUse Load Valve to adjust Back Pressure
46 Installer Testing A FoamPro Model 2001 And 2-1/2” Flowmeter Cross reference the proportioner model and the flowmeter size on the testing matrix chartWater Flow:UseSimulatedFlow Rate:Foam Percentage:WaterPressureSet At:Foam System OutputShould Be:250 GPM1000.8%400 PSI0.8 Gallons750 GPM2.6%150 PSI2.6 Gallons20 GPM200.1%0.02 Gallons
47 Download this presentation at: Questions / CommentsJim JohannessenBill BallantyneDownload this presentation at:
48 And Finally, Remember To Always: Buckle Up!Use Foam!Be Safe!Thank You!