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Presentation on theme: "Modernism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modernism

2 Historical Context World War I– The Great War: Technology of destruction Communism—Stalin’s industrialization of the Soviet Union: 20 million dead Social realism in the arts Fascism-Nationalism and racism: Hitler’s institutionalization of genocide Radio and film used for propaganda

3 Mass Media in the U.S. Documentary arts: Commercial film
Radio programs Posters Photography

4 Science Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Quantum mechanics

5 Picasso Mastered traditional techniques “blue period” “rose period”
Abandoned Renaissance tradition: new rules Les Demoiselles D’Avignon

6 Influences on Picasso Cézanne’s Bathers African and Polynesian masks

7 Cubism Revolutionary departure from representational art. The area around painted objects became part of the abstract geometric forms. Presented the object from many angles simultaneously. Georges Braque

8 Stages of Cubism Analytical phase: browns and grays. Colors should not distract from lines and planes Synthetic phase: collage

9 Abstraction Pure line, shape and color: non-objective
Sculpture: Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in Space Brancusi’s Bird in Space Painting: Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie

10 Anti-Art Dada: rejection of reason and order in art
Marcel Duchamp’s ready-mades: L.H.O.O.Q. mobile sculpture, urinal Later influenced performance art, pop art

11 Expressionism Henri Matisse: fauvism
The Blue Window, Issy-les-Moulineaux German Expressionism: Die Brücke Emil Nolde’s Dance Around the Golden Calf Der Blaue Reiter Wassily Kandinsky’s Improvisation 28 (Second Version) Paul Klee’s All Around the Fish

12 Freud The Interpretation of Dreams influenced the humanities of the Twentieth Century Psychoanalysis: freeing unconscious desires repressed by parental and societal taboos Georgio de Chirico’s The Mystery and Melancholy of a Street

13 Surrealism André Breton: automatism
Surrealist painters sought to release the images of the subconscious Joan Miró’s The Birth of the World Salvador Dalí’s The Persistence of Memory

14 Modernism in Literature
Poets discarded meter and rhyme: vers libre Prose: Virginia Woolf’s interior monologues or stream of consciousness reveal the characters’ inner thoughts. Mrs. Dalloway: A single day James Joyce’s Ulysses: A single day

15 Modernist Literature T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land
New hero: ironic, frustrating, disappointing, self-doubting, anxious. Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis Character becomes a giant insect

16 Music/Stravinsky Le Sacré du Printemps shocked the music world
Russian folk tradition Diaghilev: artistic director Nijinsky: dancer-choreographer Stravinsky’s music introduced multiple meters, or polyrhythm, and multiple simultaneous keys or polytonality Creates disturbing dissonance

17 Music/Schoenberg Rejected the classical tradition of orchestral music
Atonal music: not composed in a key: expressionistic Pierrot Lunaire Twelve-tone method: not popular with audiences

18 Modernist Architecture
Bauhaus School (German) Walter Gropius: Clean, functional design Le Corbusier (French) functional glass and metal designs Art deco: sleek, simple shapes with decorative forms, like the “gargoyles” of the Chrysler Building

19 Bertolt Brecht Epic theater The Threepenny Opera
The disparity between the ruling class in Germany and the working classes

20 Political Paintings Orozco, Siqueiros and Rivera: murals on public buildings in Mexico Rivera’s The Enslavement of the Indians: criticism of Spain’s oppression of the indigenous people Kahlo’s The Broken Column Picasso’s Guernica: decimation of the town of Guernica by German bombs during Spanish Civil War

21 Cinema D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation
Silent film: Charlie Chaplin Soviet film: Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin Montage technique: “Odessa Steps” Leni Riefenstahl’s The Triumph of the Will, Nazi propaganda

22 The U.S.A./ N.Y. Photography: Alfred Stieglitz
Painter: Georgia O’Keeffe The Harlem Renaissance: Countee Cullen Langston Hughes Zora Neale Hurston

23 U.S.A/Other Artists Edward Hopper Nighthawks Willa Cather
William Faulkner: Absalom, Absalom!

24 American Dance Modern Dance: freedom from classical ballet Isadora Duncan Modern Ballet: classical training/freer expression George Ballanchine Martha Graham

25 American Music Aaron Copland’s Appalachian Spring
Charles Ives’ Three Pieces in New England

26 Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright: incorporate nature “Fallingwater”

27 Jazz! Improvised melodies, “swing” rhythm African-American origins
George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess, Rhapsody in Blue: concert music Large dance bands Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie “Bird” Parker, John Coltrane, Miles Davis

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