Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Income and Wealth Distribution

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Income and Wealth Distribution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Income and Wealth Distribution

2 Income and Wealth Distribution

3 Poverty

4 Poverty Absolute Poverty: A situation where individuals do not have access to the basic requirements of life – food, shelter, clothing. Relative Poverty: A situation where individuals are excluded from being able to take part in what are considered the normal, acceptable standards of living in a society.

5 Poverty Difficulties of drawing the line between those ‘in poverty’ and those outside. What do we mean by food, clothing and shelter? Is living in a sewer a form of shelter? Does having some clothing mean that you are not experiencing absolute poverty?

6 Poverty In the UK – low income threshold – 60% of the median income.
This means 12.5 million people living below this level – a poverty line? Links between ‘low pay’/poverty line and health, crime, education levels, social problems. The latter also represents a significant ‘social cost’ (negative externality) to the government

7 Poverty Trap Where those on the poverty line may not benefit from getting paid work – they might be better off staying on benefits! e.g. Family, three children, without work, income = £120 in benefits of various sorts. One parent gets a job earning £140 but after tax and national insurance has a take home pay of £110!

8 Measurements

9 Measurements of Income Distribution
Lorenz Curve: A curve showing the proportion of national income earned by a given percentage of the population. e.g what proportion of national income is earned by the top 10% of the population?

10 Lorenz Curve % of National Income This line represents the situation if income was distributed equally. The poorest 10% would earn 10% of national income, the poorest 30% would earn 30% of national income. 30% 10% 10% 30% Percentage of Population

11 Lorenz Curve % of National Income In this second example, the Lorenz curve lies further below the line of equality. Now, the poorest 30% only earn 7% of the national income. The Lorenz Curve will show the extent to which equality exists. The greater the gap between the line of equality and the curve the greater the degree of inequality. In this example, the poorest 30% of the population earn 20% of the national income. 20% 7% 30% Percentage of Population

12 Gini Coefficient Enables more precise comparison of Lorenz Curves
The proportion of the area taken up by the Lorenz Curve in relation to the overall area under the line of equality

13 Gini Coefficient The total area under the line of equality
% of National Income The total area under the line of equality The area bounded by the Lorenz Curve Percentage of Population

14 Wealth

15 Wealth A STOCK as opposed to income which represents a FLOW
Measures wealth at a point in time Wealth can be measured by reference to type of asset representing the stock.

16 Types of Asset Shares Houses Bank deposits Land
Building Society Accounts Currency holdings Buildings Machinery and Equipment Gold Etc. How the other half lives! Copyright: Stock.Xchng

17 Income Distribution Income represents a FLOW
£x per week, month, year, etc. Income can be in the form of: Wages Rents Dividends Interest Pensions Benefit payments Income from self employment Inheritance

18 Income Distribution Income can be earned income (from employment, etc.) or Unearned income – inheritance, benefit payments, pensions, etc.

19 Income Distribution

20 Redistribution of Income

21 Taxation Costs Benefits Market Distortion Administrative Costs
Incentives May not impact because some will not be paying tax Can be avoided May not be targeted at those who need the help Benefits Reduction in poverty levels Can be used to provide incentives

22 Legislation Minimum Wage – targets those on ‘low wages’ but what is the right level? Discrimination – reducing the impact of racial, sexual and disabled incidences of discrimination Regulation – Employment related regulation

23 Equity

24 Causes of Inequality Individual National

25 Individual Ownership of resources – housing, land, etc. Qualifications
Motivation Skills Ability Family size

26 National Factor endowments (land, labour, capital)
Size and quality of labour force Climate Stage of economic development Economic Power – ability to be able to dictate terms with suppliers, buyers, etc.

Download ppt "Income and Wealth Distribution"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google