Three Phases of Implementation InstallActivateInstitutionalize
Hardware Hardware Software Software People People Procedures Procedures Data Data Conversion and Information Systems Components
Parallel Conversion Strategies Old System New System Old System New System Cutover
Conversion Strategy Advantages & Disadvantages Conversion Strategy: Cutover 1. No duplication of effort for the users 2. No transition costs 3. Learning advantage for groups converted later 1. High risk 2. Cannot compare results with the old system 3. Sense of user insecurity + -
Conversion Strategy Advantages & Disadvantages Conversion Strategy: Parallel 1. Low risk 2. Sense of user security 3. Ability to compare results with old system 1. Duplication of effort for users 2. Transition costs 3. Additional processing strain on the computer + -
Implementation Meets With Resistance Install Activate Institutionalize
Failure Perception Technology Infrastructure Human Factors Failure Reality Technology Infrastructure Human Factors (Note: Bars in both graphs are not to scale; representative only)
Information Systems Development Parallel Tracks User Management Responsibility Information Systems Management Responsibility Users must stay involved and be prepared to use the new system The system must be prepared and meet the user specification Convergence with both user and system being ready at the same time PROBLEM: When either track is ready ahead of the other track.
Implementation Critical Success Factors u User commitment u Organizational trust u Open communication u Financial commitment u Common view of the development strategy
Stages of Organizational Change and their Relationship to Implementation Organizational Change Phases Implementation Phases Unfreezing Moving Refreezing Install Activate Institutionalize (Adapted from: Lewin, K., Field Theory in Social Science, Harper & Row, New York, 1958.)
Action Research & Force Field Analysis Action Research: A method for identifying the data associated with the degree of conflict or resistance in a business’s environment and then dealing with it in a real-time manner. Force Field Analysis (Tool/Form): A tool used to identify an individual’s perceived positive and negative aspects about some current or pending organizational change.
Force Field Analysis Tool Blank Force Field Analysis Form Driving Forces (Positive) Restraining Forces (Negative)
Completed Force Field Analysis Form Driving Forces (Positive) Restraining Forces (Negative) industry std. dept. std. better support site license new software etc... learning curve DOS programs machine slow more memory etc... total = X inches total = Y inches