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Module 2: Creating Quality IEPs for Students with ASD

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1 Module 2: Creating Quality IEPs for Students with ASD
Lesson 3: Writing Goals and Objectives

2 Outline Criteria for goals and objectives
Addressing the core deficits of students with ASD Goals and objectives for inclusive settings Examples of IEP goals for students with ASD

3 Criteria for Writing Goals and Objectives
All goals and objectives should be: Specific Observable and measurable Functional Developmentally appropriate Indicate criteria for mastery

4 Specific Goals that are specific allow the teacher to know exactly what the student should be learning. Non-example: “Brandon will learn to read.” (Because the skill of reading means a entail a multitude of levels and skills, this goal is not specific enough) Example: “Brandon will read fluently on the first grade level with no more than 2 errors per selection.”

5 Observable and Measurable
If the goal is observable and measurable, that means that it is written in a way that any person can observe the student engaging in the desired behavior and each individual would be observing and measuring the exact same thing. Non-example:“Sharon will stay on-task.” (This is not observable and measurable because “on-task” is not clearly defined. One teacher may document a student as on-task if the student is quiet, while another teacher may document the student as on-task when the student is completing the work assigned.) Example: “Sharon will complete in-class assignments in their entirety during the allotted time frame 90% of the time.”

6 Functional If a goal is functional, that means that is has usefulness to the student. IEPs should assist students in becoming independent members of society to the maximum extent possible, so goals should be written to promote such independence. Non-example: “Benjamin will imitate 2-block designs.” (It would be a stretch to say that this skill would be very useful for a student across a variety of settings.) Example: “Benjamin will imitate the actions of peers playing on the playground while making eye contact and smiling at the peer he is imitating.” (Because imitation is a very important play skill, this is a functional goal for Benjamin who does not currently imitate others very often.)

7 Developmentally Appropriate
A goal is considered developmentally appropriate if it is a goal the student is ready to learn. If the present level of performance is written appropriately, then developmentally appropriate goals are obvious. If a present level of performance only lists what the student cannot do, it is difficult to determine goals that are developmentally appropriate. Developmentally appropriate goals are developed by examining what the student can already do independently and developing goals for what the student should learn next based on that information.

8 Indicate Criteria for Mastery
There are a variety of ways goals can indicate criteria for mastery: Using a percentage Using a statement such as for 3 out of 5 opportunities Indicate time duration for expectation Level of independence Very specific behavioral expectation The most common ways to indicate criteria for mastery is to use percentages or number of opportunities, however it is not realistic that special education teachers or general education teachers will actually be able to take such data for every goal on the IEP considering the type of instructional activities that take place in a general education classroom. Therefore, for some goals, you may want to consider alternative ways to indicate criteria for mastery. You can use a level of independence rating system to determine what types of assistance is needed for the child to demonstrate the skill. You can also state the behavioral expectation so specifically in the objective that the criteria for mastery is simply that the student will consistently display the expected skill. Data collection procedures will be discussed in Lesson 4.

9 Addressing the Core Deficits of Autism
All IEPs for students with ASD should have goals in the social/emotional domain and the communication domain in addition to any other appropriate domains based on the individual student Goals in the social/emotional domain may address skills such as joint attention, social reciprocity, play skills, specific social skills, and positive behaviors Goals in the communication domain may address functional communication (expressing wants and needs), expressive language skills, receptive language skills, conversational skills, and pragmatics (the social use of language)

10 Addressing the Core Deficits of Autism
When developing reading goals, the core deficits of autism must be considered. If a student has significant impairments in expressive and receptive language, using books to build such skills is very important Many times teachers focus only on fluency and comprehension during reading instruction, but language development is important to address during reading as well

11 Goals and Objectives for Inclusive Settings
If a student is participating in a general education classroom, the goals and objectives on the IEP should be written so that instruction to meet them can be implemented within on-going classroom activities Many times the goals and objectives are written in a clinical manner that do not easily allow general education teachers to understand how the goals can be addressed in the general education classroom

12 Goals and Objectives for Inclusive Settings
Academic goals should not be redundant with grade-level standards. They should be written to ensure the student has access to the general education curriculum For example, if a student is in 3rd grade, a goal for mastering multiplication facts is not necessary for an IEP because all of the students are expected to learn that. However, if the student has not yet mastered addition and subtraction facts, goals to address that gap are appropriate because learning that material enables the student to move forward in the general education curriculum.

13 Examples of Goals in the Social/Emotional Domain
Annual Goal: Melissa will allow other peers to join her play or work area and engage in joint play with peers Objective: Melissa will consistently allow other peers to join her play or work area in a positive manner as demonstrated by looking at the student, smiling at the student, talking to the student, or offering the student something she is using. Objective: Melissa will engage in a minimum of five minutes of joint play with at least one peer during recess each day. Some short term objectives are considered benchmarks because each one builds on the previous one. In this example, the objectives are considered benchmarks because Melissa would first have to allow peers to join her play before she can learn to engage in joint play.

14 Examples of Goals in the Communication Domain
Annual Goal: Charlotte will participate in conversations with peers and adults. Objective: Charlotte will consistently engage in conversations with a peer with a non-preferred topic engaging in at least 3 back and forth verbal exchanges Objective: Charlotte will consistently engage in a conversation with an adult with a preferred topic engaging in at least six back and forth verbal exchanges

15 Examples of Goals that Relate to Reading/ Literacy Development
Annual goal: Jordan will use expressive language skills such as describing pictures in books, responding to comments and questions while looking at picture books, and generating stories about personal experiences. Objective: When given a picture book, Jordan will independently express what is happening in each picture using complete sentences. Objective: Jordan will tell a story about a recent experience he has at school or at home using at least 3 complete sentences Objective: While looking at a picture book, Jordan will respond to teacher comments and questions using at least one-word utterances 80% of the time.

16 Examples of Behavior Goals
Annual Goal: Emily will ask for help independently and walk in line appropriately with her class. Objective: Emily will ask for help when she gets frustrated by raising her hand, looking at the teacher, and saying “I need help” in a calm voice Objective: Emily will walk in line with the students in his class using appropriate space between himself and others, keeping his hands to himself, and remaining quiet

17 Examples of Independent Functioning Goals
Annual Goal: Derek will turn in completed work and transition to and from classes independently Objective: Derek will independently turn in completed work to the appropriate place in the classroom and place unfinished work in her “working folder” to ensure at least 80% of classroom assignments are turned in on-time Objective: Derek will independently locate each of his classes and transition from one class to another during the five minute time frame

18 Module 2 Lesson 3 Activity
For a student with ASD that you are currently working with, write a present level of performance in the communication and social/emotional domains Write goals and objectives for each of the domains based on the present level of performance (the goals and objectives should consider the criteria discussed in the module)

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