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Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care
Chapter 8 Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System

2 The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System
Afferent division Efferent division Somatic Nervous system Autonomic Nervous System

3 Functional Overview of the Nervous System

4 Anatomy of a Multipolar Neuron

5 Cellular Organization in Neural Tissue
Neurons Functional Classification of Neurons Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Interneurons General Structure of Neurons Structural Classification of Neurons Neuroglia Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglia Ependymal cells Schwann cells

6 Structural Classification of Neurons

7 Neuroglia in the CNS

8 Schwann Cells and Peripheral Axons

9 Neurophysiology The Membrane Potential
Factors Responsible for the Membrane Potential Changes in the Membrane Potential Graded Potentials Action Potential The Generation of an Action Potential Conduction of an Action Potential Demyelination

10 The Cell Membrane at the Resting Potential

11 An Action Potential

12 Conduction of Action Potentials over Unmyelinated and Myelinated

13 Synaptic Communication
Structure of a Synapse Presynaptic neurons Postsynaptic neurons Synaptic cleft

14 Synaptic Events and Neurotransmitters
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Acetylcholine (Ach) Norepinephrine Dopamine GABA Serotonin

15 Neuronal Pools Divergence Convergence Parallel Processing

16 Introduction to Reflexes
The Reflex Arc

17 Anatomical Organization of the Nervous System

18 Anatomy of the Nervous System
The Meninges Dura mater Arachnoid Pia mater Blood Brain Barrier

19 The Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy Sectional Anatomy

20 Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

21 The Brain Major Divisions of the Brain Ventricles of the Brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid The Cerebrum Structure of the Cerebral Hemispheres Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cortex Association Areas Cortical Connections Cerebral Processing Centers General interpretive Area Speech Center Prefrontal Cortex Memory Hemispheric Specialization Electroencephalogram

22 The Brain

23 The Brain Ventricles of the Brain

24 The Brain Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

25 The Brain Cerebral Hemisphere

26 The Brain Hemispheric Specialization

27 The Brain Cerebral nuclei Caudate nucleus Amygdaloid body

28 The Brain Limbic System

29 The Brain The Diencephalon The Midbrain The Pons The Cerebellum
Thalamus Hypothalamus The Midbrain The Pons The Cerebellum The Medulla Oblongata

30 Aging and the Nervous System
Reduction in brain size and weight Reduction in the number of neurons Decrease in blood flow to the brain Changes in synaptic organization of the brain Intracellular and extracellular changes in the CNS neurons

31 Summary

32 Emergency Care Applications
Chapter 8

33 Medical Disorders of the Nervous System
Cerebrovascular Accident (Brain Attack) Transient Ischemic Attacks Seizure Disorders

34 Nervous System Infections
Meningitis Viral Meningitis Unusual Forms of Meningitis Parasitic Brain Infections Brain Abscess Encephalitis Prion Disease

35 Headache Migraine Headache Cluster Headache Tension Headache

36 Neurological Trauma Spinal Cord Syndromes Blunt Trauma
Diffuse Injuries Focal Injuries Penetrating Trauma Spinal Cord Injuries Cord concussion Cord contusion Cord compression Cord laceration Complete transection Incomplete transection Cord hemorrhage Spinal Cord Syndromes Anterior cord syndrome Central-cord syndrome Brown-Sequard syndrome Spinal shock

37 Neurological Trauma

38 Focal Injuries

39 Penetrating Trauma

40 Spinal Cord Injuries

41 Summary

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