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Published byAmelia Hodges Modified over 5 years ago

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**Isotope Formulae, Electron Configurations & Orbital Diagrams**

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**Isotope Formulae Provide element’s symbol Mass number Atomic number**

mass# = #p+ + #n written as a superscript to the left Atomic number atomic# = #p+ or #e- written as a subscript to the left

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**X C C Isotope Formulae Mass# Atomic# 12 6 13 6**

Carbon has two naturally occurring isotopes: carbon-12 and carbon-13 C 12 6 C 13 6

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Isotope Formulae Give the isotope formula for each of the following: H 3 1 1. Hydrogen with 2 neutrons F 18 9 2. Fluorine with 9 neutrons U 235 92 3. Uranium with 143 neutrons

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Valence Electron(s) The electron(s) farthest from the nucleus or in the outermost energy level.

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**Aufbau Principle Comes from German word meaning “to build”**

Electrons will occupy lower energy orbitals first

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**Pauli Exclusion Principle**

An atomic orbital can hold at most two electrons. If an atomic orbital holds two electrons, they must have opposite spins.

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Hund’s Rule When filling atomic orbitals of equal energy, place electrons with parallel spins in the orbitals first. Then, place the oppositely spinning electrons in to the orbitals.

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**Electron Configurations**

Also describe where electrons live within an atom It’s like a translation of quantum numbers. They give the energy level, atomic orbital, and number of electrons residing in the orbital and energy level.

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**Electron Configurations**

Energy level May be any positive integer Just like the principal quantum number

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**Electron Configurations**

Atomic Orbital or Sublevel Represented by letters: s, p, d, f Translates azimuthal number and magnetic number s is the same as l = 0 p is the same as l = 1 d is the same as l = 2 f is the same as l = 3

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**Electron Configurations**

Number of Electrons in either an atomic orbital or a sublevel max of 2 in the s sublevel max of 6 in the p sublevel max of 10 in the d sublevel max of 14 in the f sublevel

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**Electron Configurations**

Use the periodic table to guide you in writing electron configurations. Find the link between 2,6,10, and 14 and the periodic table.

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**Electron Configurations**

Hydrogen energy level 1s1 # of electrons sublevel/orbital

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**Electron Configurations**

Write the e- configurations of the next 9 elements (through Ne). He… 1s2 Li… 1s22s1 Look at the sum of the superscripts… Be… 1s22s2 B… 1s22s22p1

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**Electron Configurations**

1s22s22p2 N… 1s22s22p3 O… 1s22s22p4 F… 1s22s22p5 Ne… 1s22s22p6

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**Electron Configurations**

Shorthand configurations are written by assuming that you can let the symbol of the noble gas preceding the valence electrons represent the e- configuration to that point.

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

He… 1s2 Li… [He]2s1 Be… [He]2s2 B… [He]2s22p1 C… [He]2s22p2

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

[He]2s22p3 O… [He] 2s22p4 F… [He] 2s22p5 Ne… [He] 2s22p6

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

Na… [Ne]3s1 Si… [Ne] 3s23p2 Cl… [Ne] 3s23p5 Ar… [Ne] 3s23p6

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

Ca… [Ar]4s2 Sc… [Ar] 4s23d1 Mn… [Ar] 4s23d5 Se… [Ar] 4s23d104p4

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

[Kr] 5s24d105p5 La… [Xe] 6s25d1 Ce… [Xe] 6s25d14f1 Hg… [Xe] 6s24f145d10

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**Exceptional Electron Configurations…shorthand**

Cr… [Ar] 4s23d4 [Ar] 4s13d5 Cu… [Ar] 4s23d9 [Ar] 4s13d10 Mo… [Kr] 5s24d4 [Kr] 5s14d5 Ag… [Kr] 5s24d9 [Kr] 5s14d10

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Orbital Diagrams Show the electron configuration while illustrating the Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund’s Rule Place energy on the y-axis Use lines to represent orbitals Use up and down arrows to indicate spin

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**Orbital Diagrams (template)**

3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for H 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for He 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for Be 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for C 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for O 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for P 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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**Wrap-Up Write the electron configuration for nitrogen.**

Write the orbital diagram for nitrogen.

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Electron Configurations Section 5.3. Objectives Apply the Pauli Exclusion Principle, the Aufbau Principle, and Hund’s Rule to write electron configurations.

Electron Configurations Section 5.3. Objectives Apply the Pauli Exclusion Principle, the Aufbau Principle, and Hund’s Rule to write electron configurations.

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