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Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care
Chapter 11 The Endocrine System

2 Objectives Compare the similarities between the endocrine and nervous systems Compare the major chemical classes of hormones Explain the general mechanisms of hormonal action Describe how endocrine organs are controlled

3 Objectives Discuss the location, hormones, and functions of the following glands and tissues: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, thymus, adrenals, kidneys, heart, pancreas, testes, ovaries, and pineal gland Explain how hormones interact to produce coordinated physiological responses

4 Objectives Identify the hormones that are especially important to normal growth, and discuss their roles Explain how the endocrine system responds to stress Discuss the results of abnormal hormone production Discuss the functional relationships between the endocrine system and other body systems

5 An Overview of the Endocrine System

6 An Overview of the Endocrine System
Structure of Hormones Hormones and the Cell Membrane Hormones and Intracellular Receptors

7 An Overview of the Endocrine System
Control of Endocrine Activity Direct Negative Feedback Control Hypothalamus and Endocrine Regulation

8 The Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Gland Hypophyseal Portal System
Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary TSH ACTH FSH LH PRL GH MSH

9 Anatomy and Orientation of the Pituitary Gland

10 Hypophyseal Portal System

11 Feedback and Control of Endocrine Secretions

12 The Pituitary Gland The Posterior Pituitary Gland ADH Oxytocin

13 Pituitary Hormones and their Targets

14 The Thyroid Gland Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones
The C Cells of the Thyroid Gland: Calcitonin

15 Homeostatic Regulation of Calcium Ion Concentrations

16 The Parathyroid Glands

17 The Thymus Relatively enormous in newborns
Reaches maximum size just before puberty Thymosins Key role in development and maintenance of normal immunological defenses

18 The Adrenal Glands The Adrenal Cortex The Adrenal Medulla
Corticosteroids Mineralcorticoids Androgens The Adrenal Medulla

19 The Kidneys Calcitriol Erythropoietin Renin

20 The Heart Cardiac muscle cells in right atrium
Atrial natriuetic peptide (ANP)

21 Endocrine Tissues of the Digestive System
The Pancreas Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentrations

22 Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentrations

23 Endocrine Tissues of the Reproductive System
The Testes Interstitial cells Androgens Testosterone Sustentacular cells The Ovaries Follicles Estrogens Corpus luteum Progesterone

24 The Pineal Gland Melatonin Slows the timing of sexual maturity
Acts as an antioxidant Establishes day-night cycles of activity

25 Patterns of Hormonal Interaction
Hormones and Growth Growth hormones Thyroid hormones Insulin Parathyroid hormone Gonadal hormones Hormones and Behavior Hormones and Aging

26 General Adaptation Syndrome

27 Integration with other Systems

28 Summary

29 Emergency Care Applications
Chapter 11

30 Overview of the Many Facets of Endocrine Systems Disorders

31 Diabetes Mellitus Type I Diabetes Mellitus Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Emergency Complications of Diabetes Hypoglycemia (Insulin Shock) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Diabetic Coma) Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Coma

32 Intravenous Glucose Administration

33 Disorders of the Thyroid Gland
Grave’s Disease Thyrotoxic Crisis (Thyroid Storm) Hypothyroidism and Myxedema

34 Disorders of the Thyroid Gland

35 Disorders of the Adrenal Glands
Hyperadrenalism (Cushing’s Syndrome) Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease)

36 Summary

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