Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

England in the 17th Century – Part II

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "England in the 17th Century – Part II"— Presentation transcript:

1 England in the 17th Century – Part II
This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation In Slide Show, click on the right mouse button Select “Meeting Minder” Select the “Action Items” tab Type in action items as they come up Click OK to dismiss this box This will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered. England in the 17th Century – Part II Establishing a Constitutional Monarchy: From the Stuarts to the Hanoverians & Robert Walpole

2 From Absolutism to Constitutionalism
And how does England do it??? ongoing opposition between kings and Parliament bloody civil war execution of a king military dictatorship son of executed king returned to throne bloodless revolution, finally constitutional monarchy! The Triumph of Parliament!!!! 3/25/2017

3 The Restoration of the Stuarts
Charles II Fought for his father during the Civil War Lived in exile in Holland and France Attempted failed revolution in 1651 Invited to return in 1660: crowned on his birthday, 30 May 1660 3/25/2017                          

4 Division of Power King could: Parliament could:
choose his own ministers decide foreign policy call Parliament veto Parliament’s laws dismiss Parliament impeach minister could make laws control of state finances 3/25/2017

5 Religious Issues & Charles II
CII = Moderate Religious Toleration BUT Puritans were punished Parliament = Anglican Church & Book of Common Prayer ONLY Clarendon Code, 1661 – all clergyman MUST swear an oath to Anglicanism Non-Anglicans = NO PUBLIC worship Anglicans worried Charles II has “Catholic tendencies” 3/25/2017

6 Religious Issues = Political Change
Treaty of Dover - Secret agreement with France (Louis XIV), 1670 Charles would receive 200,000 pounds annually from France in return for helping Catholics, fighting the Dutch, and pledging to convert to Catholicism Declaration of Indulgence, 1672 Extends more religious toleration to the Puritans and Catholics (remember many members of CII’s family are Catholic) Parliament responds w/ Test Act 1672 Required all officials to take communion in the Anglican Church and swear an oath against Catholicism Parliament splits into two parties Whigs (suspicious of king, the French & Catholics): primarily noblemen, but also merchant class, middle class Tories (supporters of king): lesser aristocracy & gentry, often poorer classes as well 3/25/2017

7 1685: the beginning of the end of the Stuarts
Charles II had no legitimate children James II, Charles’ younger brother was in line for the throne Parliament and Anglicans were fearful James II was openly Catholic BUT his heirs at the time were two Protestant daughters: Mary and Anne Would he bring back Catholicism? 3/25/2017

8 James II, 1685 – 1688 Tried to repeal the Test Act
Appointed Roman Catholics and dissenteres to positions in the army, universities, & government                                                               3/25/2017

9 Glorious Revolution, 1688 June 1688, James’ wife gave birth to a son – baptized him Catholic Members of Parliament and English society have a solution Offer the throne to James’ Protestant daughter Mary and her husband, William III of Orange William and Mary Arrive in November 1688 James II fled to France in December Husband and wife were crowned in April 1689 3/25/2017

10 William and Mary William and Mary ruled with tolerance
They led jointly between 1689 – 1694 Mary died of smallpox in 1694 William ruled alone from Section 1 ends here 3/25/2017

11 Bill of Rights, 1689 contractual relationship btw. king & people
enacted by Parliament it states: no law may be suspended by king no taxes may be levied or army maintained w/o consent of Parliament no subject could be arrested & detained w/o legal process 3/25/2017

12 Additional Acts Toleration Act, 1689: religious toleration (except for Unitarians and Catholics) BUT Test Act still holds for all officeholders 1701 Act of Settlement – no Catholic would ever be allowed to inherit the English throne Royal judges given life tenure – attempt to create a stronger more independent judiciary that would uphold the rule of law 1707 Act of Union: United Kingdom of Great Britain: England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland 3/25/2017

13 Results of Glorious Revolution
divine-right of kings no longer valid freely elected Parliament increased strength of Parliament foundation laid for constitutional monarchy end of religious “persecution” in England – not all religions have the same rights 3/25/2017

14 2 Responses to Revolution
Thomas Hobbes ( ) Leviathan, 1651 – supports idea of absolute rule BECAUSE humans = animalistic, “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” THEREFORE the “commonwealth” must rely on a sovereign ruler and may not rebel Let’s look at the frontispiece – What do you see? 3/25/2017

15 2 Responses to Revolution
John Locke ( ) Two Treatises of Government - mutual agreement btw. government and governed Gov’t. protects inalienable natural rights (life, liberty, property) of individuals Individuals act reasonably toward gov’t BUT if gov’t. breaks agreement, people should rebel Who would make up the government? The landed aristocracy 3/25/2017

16 The Last Stuart Anne, Queen 1702-1714
Although she was born 19 children none of them survived SO It was determined that Sophia of Hanover and her heirs would be the successors to the English throne Sophia was the granddaughter of James I 3/25/2017

17 The Hanoverians George I, 1714-1727 Treaty of Utrecht granted
came to power at the end of the War of Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht granted legitimacy to Hanoverian right to rule new territories: Gibraltar, Hudson’s Bay, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland the right of asiento (English merchants now allowed to ship African slaves into Spanish New World territories) limited trade rights w/ Spanish colonies 3/25/2017

18 Triumph of the Whigs Sir Robert Walpole, 1st English Prime Minister, refused to be ennobled – Why? prized civil decorum in politics – Why? 3/25/2017

19 Rise of English Dominance
See UEQs #9 and create list here: 3/25/2017

Download ppt "England in the 17th Century – Part II"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google