Profile of Student Learning and Performance in Manitoba 2003- 2004 http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ks4/docs/reports/ profile04/profile.pdf http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ks4/docs/reports/ profile04/profile.pdf
1. improving outcomes especially for less successful learners 2. strengthening links among schools, families, and communities 3. strengthening school planning and reporting 4. improving professional learning opportunities for educators 5. strengthening pathways among secondary schools, post-secondary education, and work 6. linking policy and practice to research and evidence
Aboriginal Action Plan increase high school graduation rates increase access to and completion of post-secondary education increase successful entry into and participation in the labour market improve the research base for Aboriginal education and employment
Education FemalesMales Less than 9 th Grade $14, 132 $18,553 9 th to 12 th (no diploma)15, 847 23, 438 High School Grad (inc GED)21, 963 30,868 Some college, no degree26,024 35,949 Associate degree28,337 38,483 Bachelors Degree35,408 49,982 Masters Degree 42,002 60,168 Professional degree55,460 90,653 Doctoral Degree52,167 69,188 For all levels of education26,771 36,679 1998 Median Earnings Full-time, year-round workers by level of education and gender
Some key supporting activities include: Developing 38 demonstration projects across the province that engages Aboriginal parents/families in the educational life of their children. Initiating programs that bring Elders, Aboriginal community workers, and other resource personnel into the school to support learning outcomes. Establishing the University College of the North including community-based training in key campus communities, rotating courses, distance education, and the development of relevant Northern and Aboriginal programming needs. Targeting an increase of Aboriginal apprentices in the new Aboriginal Apprentice Program. Increasing partnerships with universities and research organizations to conduct and disseminate research on Aboriginal education, especially as it pertains to learner success.
High School Drop Outs (Stats Can) The national average for high school students that dropout of school each year is 18%. That means 120,000 high school students a year leave school. Each year that the dropout rate stays at 18%, the government of Canada loses two billion dollars. 80% of all students stay in school until they graduate; a generation ago that percentage was at 50%. Almost 50% of all people who dropout return to school by the age of 20.
More than 30% of all high school dropouts had A or B averages before leaving. 10% of students who drop out had D or F averages. 22% of students leave because they are bored of school; they do not find it challenging enough. Every time there is an increase in minimum wage, the total amount of 16-17 year olds in schools falls by 1%. 22% of students dropout of high school to find work. Only 8% left school because of the actual work that they had to do.
Information from a variety of classroom-based, provincial, and international assessments indicates that many Manitoba students are learning and performing well. Nevertheless, there are performance differences between students of different backgrounds that deserve further consideration and action. In addition, attendance problems, that is, the failure to attend school on a consistent basis has significant implications for learning. This issue will be examined more closely in future reports.
Some say that education needs to be restructured, while others say the existing structure can work if we just open the windows and let in some fresh air. What do you think? Think, Pair, Share.
Research indicates some of the following factors involved in dropping out… Academic Low achievers, below grade level Unable to tolerate structure Lack of educational goals In a general course of study Do not read at grade level Difficulty in mathematics Low perceptual performance
Behavioural 1. High absenteeism and truancy 2. Exhibit discipline problems in school 3. Do not participate in extracurricular 4. Do not associate with students in school 5. Health problems 6. Impulsive decision makers 7. Work more hours per week than do completers 8. Over-represented among chemical users, delinquents, adolescent parents, and persons who attempt suicide or self-mutilation
Family 1.Come from single-parent homes 2.Come from low-income homes 3.Experience little solidarity with their family 4.Are exposed to family members who have left school early 5.Mobile families 6.Belong to a minority group 7.Lack cultural and economic experiences that often related to success in traditional school programs
Psychological 1.Feel rejected by school 2.Negative attitudes toward school 3.Do not identify with school life 4.Feel courses are not relevant to their needs 5.Lack incentive for achievement in traditional school activities 6.Socially isolated or emotionally disturbed 7.Loners who are unaccepted by peers 8.Poor self-concept, lack clear sense of identity 9.Have experienced some form of trauma or abuse 10.Cannot relate to authority figures 11.Attracted to outside jobs, wages and experiences
What are some of the labels we give to our early leavers? Learning disabled Underachiever Nonachiever Slow learner Disadvantaged Low ability Slow learner Language impaired Marginal Remedial
Some reasons students have given for leaving school… Pregnancy/ child care/ marriage 25% Failure/overage/low grades20% Work20% Disliked School17% Attendance11% Delinquency6% Family Problems6% Suspension/expulsion4% Illness/health4% Drugs/Alcohol3% Other students 3% Gastright (1989) in West, L. (1991).
Classroom climate characteristics that help drop-out prone students Positive atmosphere and supportive peer culture Fair and effective discipline system Person-oriented rather than rule-oriented classes Decision making opportunities Opportunities to develop self-esteem and confidence Opportunities to orient students to outside world of work Awareness of students as potential workers Parents and community as mentors Minimal structure and high flexibility Individualized and small group instructional materials and practices Peer teaching and cooperative learning techniques Instructional activities that build group cohesiveness Promotion of cooperative behaviour among students Basic skills development, integration of vocational skills
School Environmental Characteristics High but flexible expectations for students Diverse opportunities for achieving success Recognition of students achievements Opportunities for students to define goals Motivational instruction and activities to heighten students occupational aspirations Early identification of at-risk students
School Environment continued More extensive guidance and counselling services Specific educational plans for dropout-prone students Help students address conditions and stress that place them at risk Promotion of students sense of belonging to school Clear, fair, and consistent disciplinary rules Participation in extracurricular activities Intimate and caring work environment for staff and students Close adult-student relationships Adapted from Bhaerman, R. & Kopp, K. as cited in West, L. (1991). Effective strategies for dropout prevention of at-risk youth. Gaithersburg, Maryland: Aspen
Incentives offered to high school drop-outs to encourage them to return to school and graduate have decreased crime in the area by 71%, according to one American study – much better results, and at a lower cost, than would be gained by enforcement programs. 1 Educational failure often leads to low self-esteem and emotional disturbance, as well as frustration in the job market – all risk factors for criminality. 2 According to Correctional Service Canada, Grade 7 is the average education level of newly admitted offenders who are serving sentences of two years or more. 3
Saskatoon lawyer Kearny Healy has found that education is the second-best predictor of which people are likely to be sentenced to jail. (The best predictor is whether they have ever been in jail before.) Youth who have attained a Grade 12 education or higher are substantially less likely than other youth to go to jail. 4 Forcing youth to stay in school does not to solve this problem – in some cases, it may even do the opposite. One study found that delinquent activities of drop-outs diminished markedly once the youth had left school. 5 One approach which yields much better results is to address the underlying reasons why some youth find it difficult to stay in school. These reasons can include families moving frequently, emotional problems at home, learning disabilities (see Special Needs Programming), and bullying at school (see Countering Violence).Special Needs ProgrammingCountering Violence
As educational requirements in the labour market continue to rise, it is likely that the impact of post- secondary education as a protective factor against criminality will also increase. Groups such as Aboriginal people who have historically faced discrimination, typically have the most to gain from obtaining a post-secondary education – and the most to lose from the lack of one. 6 Troy Rupert, Coordinator of the Thunderbird House Aboriginal Centre in Winnipeg, says that "about 50- 60% of the time" the former gang members who come to his centre "can't find funding to go to school, so they get frustrated and go back to their old lifestyles." (See "When the Party's Over" in Preventing Crime through Social Development Bulletin No. 8, 2004.)Preventing Crime through Social Development Bulletin No. 8, 2004
Unfortunately, the costs of post-secondary education rose rapidly between 1990 and 2000. Tuition fees climbed by 135.4% over that period – six times faster than inflation 7 – which puts higher education out of reach for many at-risk young people. It costs approximately $100,000 to incarcerate a youth for just one year – enough money to provide a young person with four years of university education. 8
Planning Process 1.Identification of student population to be served. 2.Formation of collaborative team 3.Identification of program vision and goals 4.Research into programs that have been successful 5.Development of proposal and implementation strategies. 6.Evaluation of program outcomes
Until Pathways to Education began in 2001, too many kids from Regent Park were dropping out of high school. The drop out rate was 56%, twice the Toronto average. Located in downtown Toronto, Regent Park, completed in 1949, was the first planned subsidized housing complex in Canada. Of the over 11,000 people who live in Regent Park, 38% are children. The average family income is around $18,000/year which is half that of average Canadians. 68% of Regent Park's families are low income. English is a second language for nearly 60% of adults. Close to 80% of residents are newcomers to Canada.
Pathways to Education has four keys to success: Tutoring getting good grades Mentoring preparing for the future Financial support investing in potential Advocacy someone on your side See handout for explanation
Action research provides the medium to conduct research in collaboration with colleagues, community partners, parents, students and school personnel. Data from action research can be used to identify needs, describe problems and discover patterns, target interventions, identify best practices and plan programs (Armstrong & Moore, 2004; Holly, Arhar, & Kasten, 2005).
Keep Kids in School Fair See list of alternative programs on handout
The Vocational Connection The Real Game Blueprint for Lifework Design Apprenticeship Jobworks Try
Make meaning Connect Belong Support Expand Interest…