Presentation on theme: "Utah State University and Cache County School District"— Presentation transcript:
1 Utah State University and Cache County School District Principal(les) for Data Collection: Important Ingredients for Successful and Targeted InterventionsRichard P. West, Ph.D.Terry Humphreys, M.S.Tim G. Smith, M.S.Matthew J. Taylor Ph.D.Utah State University and Cache County School District
2 If Schools Are To Achieve All They Can, They Will Need… Better information about what works (Best Practices)Tools for monitoring progressTailored assistance in developing and implementing appropriate policyMore skillful communication and more public involvement in reformEducation Commission of the States, 1998
3 Better schools result from better decisions, and better decisions result from better data Sustained improvement in academic achievement requires changes in the school environmentAn ethic of collegiality and cooperation is necessary to bring about meaningful school reformPRINCIPLES
4 Indicators of School Quality Monitoring the School Environment
6 Web of Causation for Academic Achievement Instruction Academic
7 Web of Causation forSocial CompetencePunishmentSocial Competence
8 saturated fat, cholesterol, Web of Causation for Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attacks)Taken from Friedman, G. D. (1994).Primer of Epidemiology (5th Ed.).New York: McGraw-Hill, p.4.Natural selection ofmetabolic adaptationto starvationSocialpressuresIndustrialsocietyDietary excesses insaturated fat, cholesterol,calories, saltPersonality &emotionalstressHereditaryfactorsCigarettesmokingLack ofexerciseObesityCoronaryarterydistributionDiabetes orcarbohydrateintoleranceHyperlipidemiaIncreasedcatecholaminesThrombotictendencyHypertensionSignificantcoronaryatherosclerosisDeficiency incollateralcirculationMyocardialsusceptibilityThe authors note that “Despitethe apparent complexity of thisdiagram, it is undoubtedly anoversimplification and willcertainly be modified by further study.” (p. 5).Coronary occlusionMyocardialinfarction
9 The Indicators of School Quality Parent SupportTeacher ExcellenceInstructional QualityAdministrationStudent CommitmentSafetyResources
10 Areas of RiskHome Language “Is English the primary language spoken at home?”Mobility “Have you moved more than once in the past three years?”Peer Associations “Do you generally approve of your child’s closest friends?”Family Bonding “Do your neighbors generally monitor their children’s activities?”Community Affiliation “Do you regularly attend community, social, or religious meetings?”Academic Risk “Do you have a high school diploma/GED?”Economic Risk “Do you have Internet access at home?”
11 ISQ and Academic Achievement The variables measured by ISQ account for more than 80% of the variance of academic achievement scoresEven when “risk” is removed from the equation, the correlations between ISQ variables and achievement are statistically significant
12 Hierarchy of Risk Economic Status Community Affiliation Family Bonding MobilityAcademic StatusHome LanguagePeer Acceptance
14 "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.” A Tale of Two Schools"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.”We want to share with you today some of the data regarding two schools in which we have used ISQ. Put in a George Washington Report. Put in Progress Reports for School 1 and School 2. For school 1 talk about risk profiles. Talk about the risk and the hiearchal relationship. Talk about how for this school to be able to change, they need to be paying attention to and responding to the data.Then bring in school 2. Tell a little about its history. Tell about Terry’s arrival on the scene and how she was able to use this data to help the staff identify some changes that needed to be made. Once she had the environmetn data, she was able to look more closely into the school data. Talk about he school data for year 1 and profile this school a little bit. This wasn’t a bad school, but it did have some problems (e.g. ISP, unclear expectations, unclear classroom responses, etc).
15 Clear Communication of Behavioral Expectations UniversalAll StudentsTargetedAt-Risk StudentsClear Communication ofBehavioral ExpectationsBobcat Pride(Rules, Values, Common Language)Administrative Intervention(InstructionsIndividual NegotiationsContracts)Relationships and BondingSystem-wide AdvisementExtra-Curricular ProgramsMentoringRelationship-buildingTeaching EmphasisAcademic SkillsSocial SkillsSelf-management SkillsTeaching Social SkillsBehavior Modeling(Expectations, Modeling, Practice, Fluency, Evaluation)Intensive Teaching(PlannedAndOpportunisticTeaching)Recognition for AppropriateBehaviorBobcat 200(Praise Notes/BoardsRecognition ProgramsGood Behavior Game)Increase)Instructive PraiseBobcat Tracks
21 Clear Communication of Behavioral Expectations UniversalAll StudentsTargetedAt-Risk StudentsClear Communication ofBehavioral ExpectationsBobcat Pride(Rules, Values, Common Language)Administrative Intervention(InstructionsIndividual NegotiationsContracts)Relationships and BondingSystem-wide AdvisementExtra-Curricular ProgramsMentoringRelationship-buildingTeaching EmphasisAcademic SkillsSocial SkillsSelf-management SkillsTeaching Social SkillsBehavior Modeling(Expectations, Modeling, Practice, Fluency, Evaluation)Intensive Teaching(PlannedAndOpportunisticTeaching)Recognition for AppropriateBehaviorBobcat 200(Praise Notes/BoardsRecognition ProgramsGood Behavior Game)Increase)Instructive PraiseBobcat Tracks
22 The Future of ISQIndicators of PBSDomain and PBS Checklists
23 Elementary Students Do your teachers always give clear instructions? Are you often confused about how to behave at school?Do you like to read?Do your teachers tell you when you do well?
24 Secondary StudentsDo all of your teachers generally give clear instructions?Is there an adult at this school who you can approach for help?Are you frequently confused about what is expected of you at school?Would you know where to get help if you fell behind in your schoolwork?Have you been recognized individually in the last school week for behaving well?
25 StaffDo you post clearly stated expectations for behavior in your classroom?Do teachers regularly encourage students to come to them for extra help?Is there a coordinated effort by all school staff to teach appropriate social skills?Do all of your students know where to get help to catch up academically?Are you encouraged by the administration to recognize positive student behaviors?
26 Checklist of Contextual Factors Clear Communication of Expectations for PerformanceA well-written set of behavioral standards and expectations exists at this schoolThe set of expectations is short (generally from 5 to 7 items)Students were involved in the development, refinement, and communication of the standards of behaviorThe behavioral expectations are statements of how to behave well, rather than what not to doBehavioral expectations are posted prominently throughout the schoolBehavioral expectations are emphasized in each classroom (e.g. explicitly taught, reminded, and encouraged)Students are able to remember and repeat statements of behavioral expectationsAdapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles
27 Checklist of Contextual Factors Relationships and BondingStrong administrative support for staff exists (e.g. good teaching is recognized, faculty requests are acted upon promptly)Strong staff support for one another exists (e.g. staff confer with one another regarding instruction and discipline)Staff greet and help students feel welcome in the classroomStaff interact with and show interest in students in various settingsStaff have many more positive than negative interactions with studentsStudents generally comply willingly with staff requests and instructionsStudents tend to “hang around” staff, engaging in conversations, etc.Staff are really well acquainted with each and every student, and are familiar with students’ personal characteristics, attributes, and challengesAdapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles
28 Checklist of Contextual Factors Skill-Building Emphasis: Academic, Social,and Self-Management SkillsThe school assumes responsibility for learning of academic skillsCurriculum in all areas is organized to emphasize active rather than passive responding, with many tailored opportunities for all students to respondAcademic assignments are adjusted to students’ functional levelsSufficient additional academic support is provided to struggling studentsThe school assumes responsibility for learning of social skillsSocial skills are identified and taught effectively emphasizing fluency and generalized performance in natural settingsFailure to meet high expectations of performance is followed by individual intensive teaching rather than punishmentStudents receive explicit instruction and support in self-managementAdapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles
29 Checklist of Contextual Factors Recognition of Appropriate BehaviorRecognition is provided by the administration to students who meet the behavioral expectationsRecognition is provided by classroom teachers to students who meet the behavioral expectationsAll students receive frequent and appropriate recognition for their accomplishments and efforts to meet high standards of good behaviorAt-Risk students receive more frequent and personalized (tailored) recognition for their efforts to meet high standards and expectations (in both academic and deportment)Evidences exist in this school of efforts to pay more attention to good behavior and success than to problem behavior and mistakesAdapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001), California State University,Los Angeles
30 California State University,Los Angeles CONTEXTUAL FACTORS“It appears that changing these identified contextual factors not only can help prevent antisocial behavior, but also can help to create an environment more conducive to learning”G. Roy Mayer (2001)California State University,Los Angeles
31 Nine Contextual Factors that Contribute to Punitive School Environments and Promote Antisocial BehaviorLow student involvement in school activitiesUnclear rules for student deportmentWeak or inconsistent administrative supportStudent academic failureStudent deficiency in social & personal management skillsProblems discriminating prosocial & antisocial behaviorConsequences delivered inconsistentlyInadvertent reinforcement of antisocial behaviorOver reliance on punitive methods of control (Mayer, 1995; Similar to home-based contextual factors noted by Loeber, Stouthammer-Loeber & Green, 1987 and Reid & Patterson, 1991)