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Factors Influencing Personality

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Presentation on theme: "Factors Influencing Personality"— Presentation transcript:

1 Factors Influencing Personality
Biological temperament Environmental parenting culture

2 Parents’ Behaviors Attachment Parenting style
strong, affectionate bond between child and caregiver Parenting style authoritative authoritarian permissive neglectful or abusive

3 Cultural Expectations & Socialization
Children learn behaviors and belief systems of a long-standing social group Who influences culture? Cultures endorse different values and behaviors culture shock

4 Personality Traits: The “Big 5”
OCEAN Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism

5 Sense of self

6 Self-assessment Self-concept Self-esteem Self-efficacy

7 Factors Influencing Sense of Self
Hmmm…what factors influence how we feel about ourselves?

8 Developmental Progression
Childhood describe physical, concrete characteristics positive sense of self, high self-efficacy Early adolescence describe abstract traits self-esteem often drops imaginary audience, personal fable Late adolescence multifaceted sense of self, identity

9 Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development

10 Identity Status Based on patterns of behavior (Marcia) diffusion
foreclosure moratorium identity achievement

11 Diversity in Development
Gender How has a higher self-esteem girls or boys Culture and ethnicity group vs individual identity ethnic identity

12 Peer relationships and interpersonal understanding

13 Peers/ Friends

14 Larger Social Groups Cliques Crowds Gangs exclusive in nature
3 to 10 members Crowds larger than cliques, not as exclusive share activities, attitudes, or background can take form of subculture Gangs cohesive group characterized by initiation rites, distinctive clothing, & other markers

15 Romantic Relationships
Usually evolve from crush to real love Often based on attractiveness, social status Benefits? May be confusing in adolescence

16 Popularity & Social Isolation
Popular students Rejected students Controversial students Neglected students

17 Social Cognition Ability to think about how other people are likely to think, act, and react

18 Development of Theory of Mind
Childhood Early adolescence Late adolescence

19 Aggression Actions intended to harm others
physical vs. relational proactive vs. reactive Factors influencing aggression?

20 Technology & Peer Relationships
Helpful or harmful….you be the judge

21 Moral and prosocial development

22 Moral & Prosocial Development
Prosocial behavior Morality

23 Kohlberg’s Theory Children construct standards for right & wrong
Moral dilemma: In Europe, a woman was near death from a rare form of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what the drug cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said no. So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. (Kohlberg, 1984, p. 186)

24 Level & Stage Age Range Examples
Preconventional Stage 1: Avoidance of punishment Stage 2: Exchange of favors Preschool – elementary; some junior high; few high school students Stage 1: “I would cheat if I knew I wouldn’t get caught.” Stage 2: “I’ll let you copy mine if you do my homework.” Conventional Stage 3: Good child Stage 4: Law and order Few older elementary children, some junior high, many high school students (Stage 4 does not typically appear until high school) Stage 3: “I’m not going to tell because I want her to like me.” Stage 4: “You can’t do that because the teacher said no.” Postconventional Stage 5: Social contract Stage 6: Universal ethical principle Rarely seen before college (stage 6 is extremely rare) Stage 5: “In this case, the rule may be wrong.” Stage 6: “You shouldn’t lie because it violates the Golden Rule.”

25 Weaknesses in Kohlberg’s Theory
Moral issues (e.g., causing harm) conflated with social conventions (e.g., having rules to help society run smoothly) Helping and showing compassion for others overlooked Underestimation of young children’s abilities Importance of situational factors overlooked

26 Factors Affecting Moral Development
Level of moral reasoning Guilt, perspective taking, empathy Personal motives Self-perceptions

27 Diversity in Development
Gender girls more likely to experience guilt, shame, empathy care vs. justice orientation (C. Gilligan) Culture & ethnicity

28 Culture and Ethnicity Culture Ethnic group

29 Navigating Different Cultures
Cultural mismatch different cultural norms at home and school Why would this be a problem?

30 Examples of Diversity Language and dialect Waiting vs. interrupting
When to talk, when to be quiet Emotional expressiveness Eye contact Personal space Responding to questions Waiting vs. interrupting Private vs. public performance Views about teasing Cooperation vs. competition Family relationships & expectations Conceptions of time Worldviews

31 Culturally Inclusive Classrooms
Identify your cultural lens and biases. Learn about students’ backgrounds. Incorporate perspectives & traditions of many cultures into the curriculum. Adapt instructional strategies to students’ preferred ways of learning & behaving. Work to break down stereotypes of particular ethnic groups. Bring cultural diversity to culturally homogeneous classrooms. Foster democratic ideals, & empower students to bring about meaningful change.

32 Gender differences

33 Cognitive & Academic Abilities
Differences are small; gap is decreasing Similar on tests of general intelligence Girls Better at…. Boys Better at…

34 Motivation in Academic Activities
Girls more engaged more motivated to do well in school & go to college Boys more willing to take academic challenges and risks less concerned about failure Girls’ high achievement motivation makes them more likely to choose tasks that ensure success….sometimes this means they choose less challenging fields to study. Boys tend to overestimate their athletic ability and their physical appearance, whereas girls are particularly hard on themselves in regard to their physical appearance.

35 Sense of Self Self-worth similar until puberty
consistent with stereotypes boys overestimate abilities; girls underestimate Girls’ high achievement motivation makes them more likely to choose tasks that ensure success….sometimes this means they choose less challenging fields to study. Boys tend to overestimate their athletic ability and their physical appearance, whereas girls are particularly hard on themselves in regard to their physical appearance.

36 Interpersonal Behaviors
Girls Boys As boys get older, they want to assert their heterosexuality (“can’t sit by you at the theater”) Girls excel academically in same sex classrooms and in environments that encourage cooperation.

37 Classroom Behavior Boys Girls more likely to misbehave
more participatory Girls less likely to volunteer answers more likely to lead in same-sex groups than in mixed groups Girls report being worried that they will appear too smart OR are afraid to fail and give wrong answer.

38 Socioeconomic differences

39 Socioeconomic Differences
Socioeconomic status (SES) What is it? Academic achievement is correlated with SES lower SES students are at greater risk for dropping out of school

40 Fostering Resilience Be a dependable source of academic and emotional support. Build on students’ strengths. Identify and provide missing resources and experiences important for successful learning.

41 Students at risk

42 Defining “At-Risk” At-risk student: High probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for success.

43 Characteristics of Students At Risk
History of academic failure Emotional and behavioral problems Lack of psychological attachment to school Increasing lack of involvement with school

44 Why Students Drop Out Little family or peer encouragement
Extenuating life circumstances Dissatisfaction with school Pessimism about ability Lack of teacher support

45 Supporting Students at Risk
Identify at-risk students as early as possible Create a warm, supportive atmosphere Make long-term, systematic efforts to engage students in the academic curriculum Encourage and facilitate identification with school

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