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Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings

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Presentation on theme: "Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings"— Presentation transcript:

1 Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings
Christopher Ewing, MS Behavior Intervention Consultant Arkansas Department of Education

2 Training Overview Stages of Learning Errorless Learning
Prompting and Prompt Fading Discrete Trial Training Precision Teaching & Fluency Training Verbal Behavior Incidental Teaching Chaining Shaping

3 Stages of Learning Acquisition Mastery/Fluency Generalization

4 Errorless Learning A procedure that reduces the chance of incorrect responses Makes use of prompts and prompt fading to reduce incorrect responses Reduces potential of learning incorrect responses

5 Prompts Prompts increase the effectiveness of teaching by decreasing the likelihood of incorrect responses. Types of Prompts Physical Prompts Visual Prompts Verbal Prompts

6 Physical Prompts Physically guiding the student Hand-over-hand
Use the least force needed to ensure correct response Never physically force the child’s movement Effective for teaching motor skills

7 Visual Prompts Visual cues to ensure correct response
4 types of visual prompts Gestural Picture Model Positional

8 Verbal Prompts Verbal instructions Words or phrases
Can include sign language

9 Prompt Fading General Guidelines
Determine how the prompt will be faded before you start fading. Must be done in an orderly manner. Begin fading when correct responding averages 80% correct. Delay prompt 2-3 consecutive incorrect responses return to the last prompt level that the student was successful

10 Prompt Fading Physical Prompts
Reduce the force of grip Light touch Shadowing or change position of prompt

11 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts

12 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts

13 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts
car cat dog

14 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts
dog car cat

15 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts
cat dog car

16 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts
car dog cat

17 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts
car cat dog

18 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts
Trainer Student

19 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts
Trainer Student

20 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts
Trainer Student

21 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts
Trainer Student

22 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts
Trainer Student

23 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts
Trainer Student

24 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts
Trainer Student

25 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts
Trainer Student

26 Selection-Based Imitation
Used to teach receptive language Sequence of Implementation Linear configuration Ensure attending Field expansion Strengthen scanning and increase field size Linear configuration/different positions Solidify scanning and prevent positional responding Two steps Increase flexible scanning and increase attention Transfer to receptive labeling “Do this.” is changed the label of the item Gestural prompt is gradually faded Response comes under control of verbal label of item

27 Selection-Based Imitation Linear Configuration
Trainer “Do this.” Student

28 Selection-Based Imitation Field Expansion
Trainer “Do this.” Student

29 Selection-Based Imitation Linear Configuration/Different Positions
Trainer “Do this.” Student

30 Selection-Based Imitation Linear Configuration/Different Positions Field Expansion
Trainer “Do this.” Student

31 Selection-Based Imitation Non-Linear Configuration
Trainer “Do this.” Student

32 Prompt Fading Verbal Prompts
Shorten the instruction Shorten the word Give beginning sounds

33 Discrete Trial Training
A structured way of teaching Each trial has a clear beginning and ending Trials are distinct and succinct A trial is one set of instructions Instruction Response Consequence

34 Discrete Trial Training Components
Presentation of Materials Instructions Prompting Delivery of Consequences

35 Discrete Trial Training Presenting the Materials
Materials are ready and organized Unnecessary items are removed from area Materials and reinforcers are accessible to trainer Items must be randomized each trial

36 Discrete Trial Training Randomization of Items
Trainer Student

37 Discrete Trial Training Randomization of Items
Trainer Student

38 Discrete Trial Training Randomization of Items
Trainer Student

39 Discrete Trial Training 5 Components of Effective Instructions
Clear and easily identifiable Appropriate for the task Consistent for new tasks Uninterrupted Gain student’s attention

40 Delivering Consequences Correct Responses
Initially reinforce all correct responses Once prompts are faded, use praise only to signal correct prompted responses

41 Delivering Consequences Incorrect Responses
Do not use “No, no” prompt Remove materials If prompt has been faded, do not prompt after first incorrect response Present materials and instruction Reinstate last successful prompt after 2 incorrect responses

42 Discrete Trial Training

43 Precision Teaching A fluency based set of methods and practice procedures which adjust curricula for each student to maximize learning

44 Precision Teaching Examples of Success
Students at Malcom X College made 2 grade level gains in 16 hours of instruction (Johnson & Layng 1994) Sacajawea Elementary students gained percentage points within 3 yrs. on standard achievement tests (Beck & Clement 1991) Morningside Academy offers 2 money back guarantee for program Students will progress 2 grade levels each year Time on task will increase from 1-3 min. to 20 or more minutes (Johnson & Layng 1994) Have not refunded any monies to date

45 Precision Teaching Key Features
The learner knows best Uses frequency for measurement Daily charting on the Standard Celeration Chart Focused instruction and practice on directly observable behavior

46 Precision Teaching Benefits
Frequency of response is the basic unit of measurement Free operant responding Emphasizes teaching sequentially Instructional decisions are data based Multiple instructional techniques can be utilized

47 Precision Teaching 5 Steps
Select a Task Set an Aim Count and Teach Develop a Learning Picture Decide What to Do

48 Precision Teaching Select a Task
Countable The movement must be observable and measurable Counting Period Consistent At least 8-10 movements Correct/Incorrect Pair Define correct and incorrect movements Count both correct and incorrect movements for each counting period Learning Channel Input and Output Multiple learning channel sets for each skill Hard-To-Do Goal is to teach a new skill

49 Precision Teaching Learning Channels
INPUT See Hear Touch Think OUTPUT Say Write Touch Sign Reach Press Mark Point Match

50 Precision Teaching Learning Channels
Sample Learning Channel Sets See/Write See/Say Think/Do Hear/Write Think/Write Hear/Sign See/Match SeeHear/Touch

51 Precision Teaching Set an Aim
Strategy 1 Use component skill frequencies 1.5 to 2.0 times greater than composite skill Ex. Writes digits/minute Aim for multiplication facts = 80/mintue Strategy 2 Ratio between teacher and student Adult Skill Rate = Student Skill Rate Adult Tool Rate Student Tool Rate 80 = X = 40/minute Ratio between fluent student and student

52 Precision Teaching Aims
Movement Learning Channel Set Frequency Math See/Write 60-90 Digits/Minute Spelling Hear/Write 15-25 Words/Minute Handwriting See/Write 125 Letter/Minute Reading See/Say Words/Minute

53 Precision Teaching Fluency for Children with Autism
Do Say Write Touch Hear 35-50 40-60 70-90* 40-60** 35-40 See 35-50 55-70 80-100* 40-60** 30-35 *Syllables per minute **Digits/letters per minute Frabizio/Moors Consulting

54 Precision Teaching Count and Teach
Count correct and incorrect movements Teach Materials Prompting Consequences for correct and incorrect movements Practice

55 Precision Teaching Develop a Learning Picture
Daily charting Draw expected celeration line (minimum celeration line) 3 consecutive days below line change teaching strategy

56 Precision Teaching Decide What to Do
Slice Back A smaller movement of the original movement Error rate is higher than correct rate Step Back A movement that is easier than the original movement Change the Counting Period When endurance is an issue Duration should equal real life Change the Aim Set a temporary aim lower than the final aim Gradually increase the aim as each temporary aim is met

57 Precision Teaching Standard Celeration Chart
Standard charting conventions Multiply/Divide Advantages of multiply/divide 1 response/1000 minutes 1000 responses/minute


59 SCC Calculating the Record Floor
Record Floor equals 1/Number of Minutes 1 Minute Timing = 1 5 Minute Timing = 1/5 = 0.2 10 Second = 6 60/10 = 0.17 1/0.17 = 6 1 Number of Minutes Record Floor =


61 SCC Minimum Celeration Line
Draw aim star Complete three days of baseline Draw start mark Draw mark at day two at the median frequency for the three days Draw line If frequency falls below minimum celeration line for 3 consecutive days, change programming or set new aim with new minimum celeration line.



64 SCC Charting Data Count the number of correct and incorrect responses per given timing A pass or skip is counted as an incorrect Self corrected responses are counted as a correct and an incorrect response Draw the record floor Chart data

65 SCC Charting Data PRACTICE 1-minute timing 5 correct and 3 incorrect

66 5 Correct 3 Incorrect 1-Minute Record Floor


68 20 Per Minute 5 3




72 SCC Charting Data PRACTICE 30-second timing 5 correct and 3 incorrect

73 Record Floor = 1/time in minutes


75 x 3 Per Minute

76 5 Per Minute x



79 3 Per Minute

80 5 Per Minute 3 Per Minute




84 30 Second Record Floor 1 Minute Record Floor 5 Minute Record Floor

85 SCC Drawing Celeration Lines
Quarter Intersect Method 1. Divide the frequencies into four equal sections. 2. Find the median frequency for each half. 3. Mark where the median frequencies for each half crosses the 1st and 3rd quarter intersect lines. 4. Draw a line connecting the marks on the 1st and 3rd intersect lines.


87 SCC Celeration Values Draw celeration line
Mark where celeration line crosses a Sunday line Draw a dashed line from Sunday mark to the next Sunday mark Measure celeration using rate finder

88 Draw Celeration Line



91 Sample SCC See/Write Addition Think/Write Name
Precision Teaching Sample SCC See/Write Addition Think/Write Name

92 29


94 Fluency The fluid combination of speed and accuracy that characterizes competency, mastery, and expert performance (Binder, 1988).

95 Fluency Training Benefits
REAPS Retention Endurance Application Performance Standards Stability Over Time

96 15

97 Mean Averages for Retention Checks Participant 1
% Correct Duration (Seconds) Accuracy-Only 86 13 Fluency Training 98 7

98 Mean Averages for Retention Checks Participant 2
% Correct Duration (Seconds) Accuracy-Only 76 11 Fluency Training 100 10

99 Fluency Training Big 6+6 Big 6 Big 6+6 Fluency Aims Reach Grasp Touch
Point Release Place Big 6+6 Pull Squeeze Shake Push Tap Twist Fluency Aims In isolation movements/minute As a compound movements/minute

100 Verbal Behavior Topographic Response Selection Response Spoken Sign

101 Verbal Behavior Mand Tact RFFC A request for a reinforcer
Verbal response to non-verbal stimulus RFFC Receptive by Function, Feature, and Class Classification

102 Incidental Teaching Promotes generalization
Teaching in the natural environment Must be programmed

103 Chaining Backward Chaining Forward Chaining Whole Task Chaining

104 Shaping Successive approximation towards a terminal behavior.

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