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Motivation and Performance

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2 Motivation and Performance
chapter thirteen Motivation and Performance McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Learning Objectives Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it. Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and equity theory what managers should do to have a highly motivated workforce. Explain how goals and needs motivate people and what kinds of goals are especially likely to result in high performance.

4 Learning Objectives Identify the motivation lessons that managers can learn from operant conditioning theory and social learning theory. Explain why and how managers can use pay as a major motivation tool.

5 The Nature of Motivation
The psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations

6 The Nature of Motivation
Direction - possible behaviors the individual could engage in Effort - how hard the individual will work Persistence - whether the individual will keep trying or give up

7 Question? What behavior is performed for its own sake?
Intrinsically Motivated Behavior Extrinsically Motivated Behavior Centrally Motivated Behavior Inherently Motivated Behavior The correct answer is “A” - Intrinsically Motivated Behavior. See next slide

8 The Nature of Motivation
Intrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake. The source of the motivation that comes from actually performing the behavior. The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself

9 The Nature of Motivation
Extrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself.

10 Outcomes and Inputs Outcome Input
Anything a person gets from a job or an organization Pay, job security, autonomy, accomplishment Input Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization Time, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors

11 The Motivation Equation
Figure 13.1

12 Expectancy Theory Motivation will be high when workers believe:
High levels of effort will lead to high performance. High performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes.

13 Expectancy Theory Major Factors of Motivation
Expectancy - the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance Instrumentality - the belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes Valence - how desirable each of the available outcomes from the job is to a person

14 Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence
Figure 13.2

15 Expectancy Theory Figure 13.3

16 Need Theories Need Need Theories
A requirement or necessity for survival and well-being. Need Theories People are motivated to obtain outcomes at work that will satisfy their needs Managers must determine what needs a worker wants satisfied and ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well.

17 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self- actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Needs Description Examples Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs Table 13.1

18 Adequate pay for necessities
Alderfer’s ERG Theory After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised. Growth Self-development, creative work Continually improve skills Relatedness Interpersonal relations, feelings Good relations, accurate feedback Existence Food, water, clothing, and shelter Adequate pay for necessities Needs Description Examples Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs Table 13.2

19 Alderfer’s ERG Theory As lower level needs become satisfied, a person seeks to satisfy higher-level needs A person can be motivated by needs at more than one level at the same time When people experience need frustration they will focus on satisfying the needs at the next-lowest level

20 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction.

21 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself—autonomy, responsibility, interesting work. Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the work—comfortable work environment, pay, job security.

22 McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power
Need for Achievement A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence

23 McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power
Need for Affiliation Concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him get along with each other Need for Power A desire to control or influence others

24 Equity Theory Equity Theory
Focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs.

25 Equity Theory A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself. Equity exists when a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referent’s ratio. If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity.

26 Outcomes < Outcomes Outcomes > Outcomes
Equity Theory Condition Person Referent Example Equity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes more inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Underpayment Outcomes < Outcomes gets the same outputs as referent Overpayment Outcomes > Outcomes same inputs but also Table 13.3

27 Equity Theory Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. Workers feel they are not getting the outcomes they should for their inputs. Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. Workers feel they are getting more outcomes than they should for their inputs.

28 Equity Theory Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity. In underpayment, workers may reduce input levels to correct (rebalance) the ratio or seek a raise. In overpayment, workers may change the referent person and readjust their ratio perception. If inequity persists, workers will often choose to leave the organization.

29 Goal Setting Theory Focuses on motivating workers to contribute their inputs to their jobs and organizations Considers how managers can ensure that workers focus their inputs in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals.

30 Goal Setting Theory Goal
What a person is trying to accomplish through his efforts and behaviors Must be specific and difficult Goals point out what is important to the firm. Workers should be encouraged to develop action plans to attain goals.

31 Goal Setting Theory Goals motivate people to contribute more inputs to their jobs Goals help people focus their inputs in the right direction

32 Learning Theories Managers can increase employee motivation and performance by the ways they link the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors in an organization and the attainment of goals

33 Learning Theories Learning
A relatively permanent change in person’s knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience.

34 Operant Conditioning Theory
People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. Linking specific behaviors to the attainment of specific outcomes can motivate high performance and prevent behaviors that detract from organizational effectiveness.

35 Question? Which operant conditioning tool administers an undesired consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction Punishment The correct answer is “D” – punishment. See slide 13-39

36 Operant Conditioning Tools
Positive Reinforcement Gives people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functionally behaviors Positive reinforcers: Pay, praises, or promotions

37 Operant Conditioning Tools
Negative Reinforcement Eliminating undesired outcomes once the functional behavior occurs Negative reinforcers: criticisms, pay cuts, suspension

38 Operant Conditioning Tools
Extinction Curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing it. Punishment Administering an undesired/negative consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior. Manager administers an undesired consequence to worker (verbal reprimand, demotion, pay cut).

39 Avoiding Side Effects of Punishment
Downplay the emotional element involved Try to punish dysfunctional behaviors as soon as they occur Try to avoid punishing someone in front of others

40 Organizational Behavior Modification
Managers systematically apply operant conditioning techniques to promote the performance of organizationally functional behaviors and discourage the performance of dysfunctional behaviors

41 Organizational Behavior Modification
Used to improve productivity, efficiency, attendance, punctuality, safe work practices, and customer service Sometimes questioned because of lack of relevance to certain work behaviors To critics it is overly controlling and robs workers of their dignity, individuality, freedom of choice and creativity

42 Steps in Organizational Behavior Modification
Figure 13.4

43 Social Learning Theory
Proposes that motivation results not only from direct experience of rewards and punishments but also from a person’s thoughts and beliefs

44 Social Learning Theory
Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning) Occurs when a person becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform the behavior and be positively reinforced for doing so

45 Social Learning Theory
Self-Reinforcement Any desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performance. Self-efficacy A person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully.

46 Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator
Expectancy: Instrumentality, the association between performance and outcomes, must be high for motivation to be high. Need Theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs. Equity Theory: pay is given in relation to inputs.

47 Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator
Goal Setting Theory: pay is linked to attainment of goals. Learning Theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviors.

48 Merit Pay and Performance
Merit Pay Plan A compensation plan that bases pay on based on individual, group and/or organization performance. Individual plan: when individual performance (sales) can accurately measured.

49 Merit Pay and Performance
Merit Pay Plan Group plan: when group that works closely together is measured and rewarded as a group. Organization plan: when group or individual outcomes not easily measured.

50 Salary Increase or Bonus?
Motivational Value of a Bonus Is Higher When: Salary levels are unrelated to current performance. Changes in other compensation items (cost of living, seniority) are not having a large effect in increasing compensation. Salaries rarely change and performance does.

51 Salary Increase or Bonus?
Benefits of Using Bonuses Do not become permanent part of compensation Are more directly tied to current performance Provide more flexibility in distributing rewards

52 Salary Increase or Bonus?
Employee Stock Option A financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organization’s stock at a certain price during a certain period of time or under certain conditions. Uses To attract high-level managers To motivate employee performance through ownership in the firm

53 Discussion Question? Which merit pay plan is the most effective?
Piece rate Commission Scanlon plan Profit sharing There is no one best answer. Students should discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students should also discuss a typical firm that might use each plan.

54 Examples of Merit Pay Plans
Piece-rate Pay Employee’s pay is based on the number of units that the employee produces. Commission Pay Employee’s pay is based on a percentage of sales that the employee makes. Organization-based Merit Plans Scanlon plan—focuses on reduced expenses or cutting costs Profit sharing—employees receive a share of an organization’s profits

55 Movie Example: Mr. Holland’s Opus
As a manager, is it important for Principal Jacobs to know the motivations of her subordinates? Mr. Holland’s Opus Glenn Holland (Richard Dreyfuss) has always wanted to write a great American symphony. To pay the bills he takes a job as a high school music teacher, thinking it will be a temporary place. Along the way he discovers the importance of family and providing young minds a compass. His opus is not “notes on a page”, but the thousands of young lives he has touched. In this scene, Principal Jacobs (Olympia Dukakis) is talking to Mr. Holland (Richard Dreyfuss) about his reasons for being a teacher. What is Mr. Holland’s motivation? Is Mr. Holland driven by achievement, affiliation or power? As a manager, is it important for Principal Jacobs to know the motivation of her subordinates?

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