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U.S. Higher Education Adapts to the Bologna Process EAIE Conference Madrid, Spain September 18, 2009 Session 3.02.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Higher Education Adapts to the Bologna Process EAIE Conference Madrid, Spain September 18, 2009 Session 3.02."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Higher Education Adapts to the Bologna Process EAIE Conference Madrid, Spain September 18, 2009 Session 3.02

2 slide 2 Session Presenters Kirk Simmons, Executive Director, International Affairs, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Betty Soppelsa, Deputy Executive Director for Conference Planning, NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Washington, D.C., USA Linda Tobash, Director University Placement Services, Institute of International Education, New York, NY, USA Leonard van der Hout, Head International Affairs, Hogeschool van Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

3 slide 3 Session Overview Goal Examine the U.S. higher education communitys evolving understanding of and reactions to the Bologna Process.

4 slide 4 Session Agenda We will discuss role that EHEA countries play in U.S. higher education, evolution in knowledge of and trends in reactions to EHEA reforms, challenges and opportunities that exist, and evolving treatment of EHEA Bologna- compliant three-year degrees, identifying key decision-makers.

5 slide 5 Role EHEA Countries Play in U.S. Internationalization and Study Abroad

6 slide 6 Impact on U.S. Higher Education EHEA encompasses 46 countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) In 2007-08 studentsNearly 69,500 degree-seeking EHEA students in the U.S. –51% at the graduate level –Turkey, Germany, U.K., and France among the top 20 sending countries in world --Adapted from NAFSA 2008 Regional Bologna Process Briefing presentation and

7 slide 7 Impact on U.S. Higher Education RankPlace of OriginTotal% of total 1China23,78122.4 2India9,9599.4 3South Korea9,8889.3 4Japan5,6925.4 5 Germany 5,2695.0 6Canada4,7584.5 7 France 3,8023.6 8 Italy 3,2733.1 9 United Kingdom 2,8232.7 10 Spain 2,3202.2 In 2007-08 scholars Nearly 31,500 EHEA scholars in the U.S. teaching or doing research Comprised nearly 30% of all international scholars in U.S. 5 of the top ten sending countries were in EHEA

8 slide 8 Europe remains the leading host region for U.S. students studying abroad, with 57% of the total. Study Abroad Destinations, 2006/07

9 slide 9 NAFSAs Contributions Sponsor transatlantic membership task forces Co-hosted Amsterdam Symposium in 2007 Produced International Educator Bologna Process Supplement Conducts annual trainings at NAFSA annual and regional conferences Hosts webinars and a comprehensive informative Bologna Special Focus website with discussion forum

10 slide 10 U.S. Higher Educations Response to the Bologna Process Higher Education Reforms

11 slide 11 Initial Responses Limited U.S. audience What is Bologna? Wait and see attitude Imperfect and simplistic understanding Viewed Europe as adopting a U.S. model of tertiary education Saw Bologna as a product rather than a process Assumed transatlantic mobility would increase with ease of credit transfer and compatibility of academic cycles North-South issues not readily perceived

12 slide 12 Changing Knowledge Base Additional constituents join discussion Graduate school deans International education administrators Study abroad professionals Faculty Students

13 slide 13 Changing Knowledge Base Increase in fundamental information Growing understanding that Bologna is a complex process with moving targets Greater understanding that variations will exist Beginning to understand challenges within Europe Near-term complications in the admission of European students to U.S. institutions

14 slide 14 Changing Knowledge Base Greater understanding of differences Learner-centered and outcomes-based assessment Tools to assess learning and progress Qualification frameworks

15 slide 15 Recognition of Competitive Factors European Attractiveness as a Study Destination Innovative, multilateral academic exchange Attractive research components Growth in number of programs offered in English Shorter time to degree Cost Promotion of educational and employment mobility within Europe

16 slide 16 Recognition of Competitive Factors EHEA reforms advancing a global discussion Model for other national systems –Systems traditionally modeled on European frameworks –China a keen observer –Latin American countries exhibit great interest in Bologna and Tuning Project outcomes

17 slide 17 Competition or Cooperation – Or Both –

18 slide 18 Cooperation Shared desire to work cooperatively with other institutions internationally Increased efforts for collaborative programming –Development of U.S. short-term study opportunities for first cycle, bachelors level, European students –Increase in dual and joint graduate degrees to ensure continued trans-Atlantic mobility

19 slide 19 Catalyst For Change Worldwide challenge to the status quo in higher education Stimulated much debate within the U.S. pertaining to length of undergraduate degrees and generated a movement towards the acceptance of three-year degrees beyond the European Community Provided opportunities for proactive international partnering at the graduate level Potential for Bologna to drive the establishment of new worldwide standards of quality assurance and workforce development.

20 slide 20 Policy Discussions Tuning Bologna Process Task Forces and Training Sessions Council of Graduate Schools – Banff and Florence Graduate Education Policy Forums Ministerial Bologna Policy Forum

21 slide 21 Reception of Three-year Bologna-compliant Degrees

22 slide 22Evolving Traditional focus on degree equivalency frequently determined by – length of undergraduate program –combination of secondary and post-secondary study Discussion moving from degree equivalency and degree comparability to degree compatibility and preparation

23 slide 23 Council of Graduate Schools: Findings on Practices in 2005 and 2006 20052006 Acceptance of 4 year degree only29%18% Provisional acceptance of 3 year degree9%4% Evaluation of course work for equivalency using a variety of measures 40%49% Determination of competency to succeed in U.S. graduate program 22%29% Taken from CGS International Graduate Admission Survey II and III

24 slide 24 IIEs Fall 2008 Snapshot of Doctoral-granting Institutions Have an official policy regarding 3-year Bologna –compliant degrees –53.4% yes –46.6% no YES –23% equivalent –35% determination varies by department –18% other –14% not equivalent No –39% may still be considered for regular admission –28% conditional –18% other –15% not considered Taken from Fall 2008 IIE Placement Services Division Survey

25 slide 25 IIEs Fall 2008 Snapshot of Doctoral-granting Institutions Have an official policy regarding 3-year Bologna –compliant degrees –53.4% yes –46.6% no YES –26% equivalent –35% determination varies by department –26% other –13% not equivalent No –39% may still be considered for regular admission –28% conditional –18% other –15% not considered

26 slide 26 In general, how would you rate the level of understanding of the following groups in your institution?

27 slide 27 other standardized test scores, e.g. GRE or GMAT English language ability educational system in home country preparation for study in specific field or specialization prior experience with students to faculty from an institution quality of institution(s) previously attended length of undergraduate degree Top three factors weighed most heavily by academic departments

28 slide 28 What generally happens to applicants presenting three-year Bologna-compliant degrees? l

29 slide 29 Wishlist Clear guides on quality assurance mechanisms in EHEA countries Greater consistency across national systems in using tools An interim report prior to graduation, that includes program, courses, grades and ECTS More information on where a given country is in terms of implementation and status of traditional vs. Bologna-compliant programs Anxious for rational models and information on types of degrees/programs that lead to further study within a national system and across the EHEA system Anxious for information on practices of other U.S. institutions with a similar profile to the own.

30 slide 30 European Response

31 slide 31 April 2009 Priorities Established 1. Continuing the Process 2. Bologna Policy Forum

32 slide 32 Continuing the Process Challenges Aging PopulationAging Population GlobalisationGlobalisation

33 slide 33 Continuing the Process Answers Lifelong LearningLifelong Learning Widening ParticipationWidening Participation Student-centered LearningStudent-centered Learning Quality AssuranceQuality Assurance Further InternationalisingFurther Internationalising Development of NQF by 2012Development of NQF by 2012 Mobility 20% by 2020Mobility 20% by 2020

34 slide 34 Global cooperation, sustainable development and completion through Bologna Policy Fora. Public funding for guarantee equitable access and sustainable development

35 slide 35 Bologna Policy Forum 46 Bologna countries and 15 others (including the U.S.A.)46 Bologna countries and 15 others (including the U.S.A.) Result: Identified common ground and new appointment in 2010Result: Identified common ground and new appointment in 2010

36 slide 36 RESOURCES American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) – information on credential evaluation -- Publication: The Impact of Bologna and Three-year Degrees on U.S. Admissions Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) – Information grad enrollments & trends: Information on international activities Institute of International Education (IIE) – Open Doors Annual Report on international student mobility trends White paper series on Study Abroad Lumina Foundation – Turning USA Project NAFSA: Association of International Educators Discussion Forum and Resources -

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