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PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920 A21w 9.2.13.

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Presentation on theme: "PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920 A21w 9.2.13."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920 A21w 9.2.13

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Who were the Progressives?
What reforms did they seek? How successful were Progressive Era reforms in the period ? Consider: political change, social change (industrial conditions, urban life, women, prohibition)


4 Progressivism WHEN? “Progressive Reform Era” WHO? “Progressives”
1901 1917 1920s WHO? “Progressives” urban middle-class: managers & professionals; women WHY? Address the problems arising from: industrialization (big business, labor strife) urbanization (slums, political machines, corruption) immigration (ethnic diversity) inequality & social injustice (women & racism) Progressives believed that new ideas and efficient govt could bring about social justice. All Progressives shared a common belief that industrialization and urbanization had created social and political problems in American society.

5 Progressivism HOW? WHAT are their goals?
Democracy – government accountable to the people Regulation of corporations & monopolies Social justice – workers, poor, minorities Environmental protection HOW? Progressives believed that people and government had the power to correct abuses produced by nature and the free market. Reforms and Amendments (laws, regulations, programs) City Commissioner and Managers Secret Ballot – privacy at the ballot box so people didn’t feel they were being forced to vote one way Initiatives - Allows voters to petition state legislatures in order to consider a bill desired by citizens. Referendums - Allows voters to decide if a bill or proposed amendment should be passed. Recalls - Allows voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office. Direct Primary - Ensures that voters select candidates to run for office, rather than party bosses. Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) - Encouraged conservation by allowing the building of dams and irrigations systems using money from the sale of public lands. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906/1911) - Required that companies accurately label the ingredients contained in processed food items. Meat Inspection Act (1906) - this law required that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of good meat and health-minded procedures. Federal Reserve Act (1913) - Created 12 district  Federal Reserve Banks, each able to issue new currency and loan member banks funds at the prime interest rate Federal Trade Act (1914) - Established the Federal Trade Commission, charged with investigating unfair business practices including monopolistic activity and inaccurate product labeling. income tax with the Sixteenth Amendment, direct election of Senators with the Seventeenth Amendment, Prohibition with the Eighteenth Amendment, women's suffrage through the Nineteenth Amendment

6 Origins of Progressivism
“Muckrakers” Thomas Nast – "Father of the American Cartoon” Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives (1890) Ida Tarbell – “The History of the Standard Oil Co.” (1902) Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of the Cities (1904) Muckrakers were members of the press that investigated corruption in order to expose problems to the American people. They had a great amount of influence, often resulting in the passage of laws designed to reform the abuse that they reported. These muckrakers recalled the efforts of early reformers who exposed corruption in print. Thomas Nast worked diligently to expose the abuses of the NYC political machine called Tammany Hall and its leader Boss Tweed through the use of political cartoons. Jacob Riis exposed the plight of the urban poor and substandard housing in his 1890 book How the Other Half Lives. Ida Tarbell exposed the ruthless tactics of the Standard Oil Company through a series of articles published in McClure's Magazine. Lincoln Steffens examined political corruption in cities across the United States. Ida Tarbell Lincoln Steffens


8 MUNICIPAL REFORM municipal reform
utilities - water, gas, electricity, trolleys council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913) Shoe line - Bowery men with gifts from ward boss Tim Sullivan, February, 1910 Shoe line--Bowery men with gift from Tim Sullivan, February, 1910 "Big Tim" Sullivan, a New York City ward boss, rewarded "repeat voters" with a new pair of shoes. Sullivan once explained, "When you've voted ‘em with their whiskers on, you take ‘em to a barber and scrape off the chin fringe. Then you vote ‘em again…Then to a barber again, off comes the sides and you vote ‘em a third time with the mustache…[Then] clean off the mustache and vote ‘em plain face. That makes every one of ‘em for four votes." (Library of Congress) Pageant 13e Reader’s Companion

9 MUNICIPAL REFORM strong mayor system

secret ballots direct primary Robert M. LaFollette Seventeenth Amendment (1913) initiative referendum recall Robert M. LaFollette, Wisconsin Governor

Voter Participation in Presidential Elections,

12 STATE SOCIAL REFORMS professional social workers
settlement houses - education, culture, day care child labor laws Enable education & advancement for working class children

13 STATE SOCIAL REFORMS workplace & labor reforms eight-hour work day
improved safety & health conditions in factories workers compensation laws minimum wage laws unionization child labor laws Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, 1913

14 State Social Reform: Child Labor
“Breaker Boys” Pennsylvania, 1911 Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight, Indiana. 1908 (1) Description: Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight, Indiana Photographer, Lewis W. Hine; Credit: Nartional Archives and Records Administration; (2) Description: Child Laborer, Newberry, S.C The overseer said apologetically, "She just happened in." She was working steadily . photographer, Lewis W. Hine;Credit: Nartional Archives and Records Administration; (3) The coal mines of Pennsylvania employed more than ten thousand boys under the age of 16. Known as "breaker boys," they sorted coal. Such work was dangerous and sometimes fatal, as attested by this 1911 headline. (Library of Congress); Pageant 13e History Companion (4) Lewis W. Hine. Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co. Bay St. Louis, Miss., March 3, 1911.;"On other side of shed still younger children were working. Out of sixty working,... I counted 15 apparently under 12 years of age. Some 3, 4, and 5 years old were picking too.... Boss said they went to work at 3 A.M. and would quit about 3 or 4 P.M." ; PBS American Photography Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co. Bay St. Louis, Miss., March 3, 1911 Child Laborer, Newberry, S.C. 1908

15 Settlement Houses Settlement Houses Hull-House – Jane Addams
Hull House today: (1906 picture) Jane Addams (1905) Hull-House Complex in 1906

16 Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Anti-Saloon League
Temperance Crusade Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Anti-Saloon League Frances Willard ( ), leader of the WCTU Anti-Saloon League Campaign, Dayton

Eighteenth Amendment Henretta, America’s History 4e from Prohibition on the Eve of the 18th Amendment, 1919


19 SOCIALISM Socialist Party Eugene V. Debs
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or “Wobblies”) Socialists parade, May Day, 1910 Though their objectives sometimes differed from those of middle-class Progressive reformers, socialists also became a more active force in the early twentieth century. Socialist parades on May Day, such as this one in 1910, were meant to express the solidarity of all working people. (Library of Congress) Socialists parade, May Day, 1910 Eugene V. Debs

20 Roosevelt, Taft & Wilson as Progressive presidents
NATIONAL REFORM Roosevelt, Taft & Wilson as Progressive presidents

21 ESSENTIAL QUESTION How effective were Progressive Era reformers and the federal government in bringing about reform at the national level in the period ? (2003B DBQ)

22 Assassination of President McKinley, Sept 6, 1901
Description: Assassination of William McKinley. Czolgosz shoots President McKinley with a concealed revolver, at Pan-American Exposition reception, Sept. 6th, Keywords: Credit: Library of Congress

23 Theodore Roosevelt: the “accidental President” Republican (1901-1909) (portrait and on horseback); Underwood and Underwood. Theodore Roosevelt Addressing a Crowd, Collection of The New-York Historical Society. PBS- American Photography (The New-York Historical Society)

24 Roosevelt’s “Square Deal”
1902 Anthracite Coal Miners Strike “Square Deal” (both) Anthracite miners at Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1900

25 Roosevelt the “trust-buster”
Northern Securities Company (1904) “good trusts” and “bad trusts” Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906) Scanned from The Verdict 22 May 1899 by C. Gordon Moffat “ONE SEES HIS FINISH UNLESS GOOD GOVERNMENT RETAKES THE SHIP”

26 Consumer Protection Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Meat Inspection Act (1906) (stockyards, Meatpacking workers); Brinkley 11e Instructor Resource CD (The Jungle); Theodore Roosevelt cartoon "A nauseating job, but it must be done“; Upton Sinclair's novel, The Jungle, published in 1906, prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to order an investigation of Sinclair's allegations about unsanitary practices. Roosevelt then used the results of that investigation to pressure Congress into approving new federal legislation to inspect meatpacking. (Utica Saturday Globe) Pageant 13e Chicago Meatpacking Workers, 1905 "A nauseating job, but it must be done"

27 Roosevelt & Conservation
Used the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 U.S. Forest Service (1906) Gifford Pinchot White House conference on conservation -1908 John Muir Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot, 1907 Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot, 1907; The two friends and allies in the conservation cause aboard the steamboat Mississippi on a 1907 tour with the Inland Waterways Commission. (Library of Congress)’; [Pageant 13e History Companion] Description: Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir on Glacier Point, Yosemite Valley, California, c1906;Credit: Library of Congress; Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir at Yosemite 1906

28 CONSERVATION: National Parks and Forests
Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;

29 William Howard Taft President 1909-13 Republican
This postcard depicts how President Theodore Roosevelt, in command of the Republican Party, persuaded his friend William Howard Taft to run for president in Taft was not eager for that office, but Roosevelt succeeded in convincing him to seek it. With Roosevelt's strong support, Taft was elected, but he proved a disappointment to Roosevelt. (Collection of Janice L. and David J. Frent) Postcard with Taft cartoon

30 Taft Birthplace today, Mt. Auburn
The Mount Auburn house was sold by the Taft family in It went through many alterations, including use as an apartment house, before it was saved from demolition by the Taft Memorial Association in 1938, eight years after Taft's death. In 1969, the Federal Government designated the Taft house a national historic site, honoring the life and work of William Howard Taft. Taft Birthplace today, Mt. Auburn

31 Taft’s Progressive Accomplishments
trust-busting forest and oil reserves Sixteenth Amendment BUT: Caused split in Republican Party Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909) Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy (Taft has) “…completely twisted around the policies I advocated and acted upon.” -Theodore Roosevelt

32 Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson Progressive Party (“Bull Moose party”)
“New Nationalism” significance Wilson:; Description: Theodore Roosevelt as an opera singer who wins the favor of "Miss Insurgency", while Robert La Follette watches in disgust. 03/18/1912. Artist, Berryman, Clifford K.;Credit: National Archives and Records Administration; Woodrow Wilson Theodore Roosevelt cartoon, March 1912

33 1912 Presidential Election

34 Wilson Woodrow Wilson “New Freedom” Underwood Simmons Tariff (1913)
Sixteenth Amendment (1913) Federal Reserve Act (1913) Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) Keating-Owen Act (1916) Wilson at the peak of his power

35 Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve Act Thomson


37 ESSENTIAL QUESTION To what extent did economic and political developments as well as the assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of American women during the period ? (1997 DBQ)

38 WOMEN “women’s professions” “new woman” clubwomen
A local club for nurses was formed in New York City in Here the club members are pictured in their clubhouse reception area. (Photo courtesy of the Women's History and Resource Center, General Federation of Women's Clubs.) The Women's Club of Madison, Wisconsin conducted classes in food, nutrition, and sewing for recent immigrants. (Photo courtesy of the Women's History and Resource Center, General Federation of Women's Clubs.)

39 Women’s Suffrage National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Carrie Chapman Catt Ohio Woman Suffrage Headquarters, Cleveland, 1912

40 Woman suffrage before 1920 Thomson Wadsworth

41 Women’s Suffrage Alice Paul National Woman’s Party
Nineteenth Amendment Equal Rights Amendment Suffragette Banner 1918 Description: Women suffragists picketing in front of the White house. The first picket line - College day in the picket line line, 1917;Credit: Library of Congress. Description: The 19th amendment; Credit: Library of Congress 19th Amendment National Woman’s Party members picketing in front of the White House, 1917 (All: Library of Congress)


43 ESSENTIAL QUESTION Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois offered different strategies for dealing with the problems of poverty and discri-mination faced by black Americans at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. How appropriate were each of these strategies (considering the context in which each was developed)? (1989 DBQ edited)

44 Black Population, 1920 Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;

45 African-Americans Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois Niagara Movement
“talented tenth” NAACP BTW: Du Bois: W.E.B. Du Bois Booker T. Washington

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