Presentation on theme: "Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap"— Presentation transcript:
1 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap DefinitionsISA domains & levelsISA analysis techniquesReview questions4
2 Definition 0: Information Systems Architecture in Enterprise Architecture BusinessBusiness ModelOrganization ModelInformation SystemsApplicationsDataTechnologyISA partly stems from and partly overlaps with Business ArchitectureThe main contact point are Business Processes (BP)Indeed most requirements for ISA come from BP, e.g. what transactions and reports the information systems should processTherefore most requirements analysis techniques cover both BP and information analysis
3 Definition 1 : User Requirements (UR) ISA is based on User Requirements (UR)UR reflect the needs of the users on three main domains, namelythe interface of the users with a computer systemthe information the users handlethe logic / rules and the flow of activities the users performUR are a higher abstraction level of systems / processing requirements that are usually described by UML
4 Definition 3: User Needs (UN) “User Needs” (UN) are what users should get from a system“User requirements” (UR) describe what the system should do (hopefully consistently with needs) regardless its implementationThere are some critical points in UNSeldom users know what they want and even less frequently know how to represent it in a useful form for software developmentTherefore :Needs should be elicited i.e. the user should be guided to express his/her own view of needsRequirements should be obtained by transforming and/ or mapping of the user’s view in a systems analysis viewRequirements should be compared against a best practice or reference modelWe call this approach «Functional analysis»
5 Definition 4: Functional Analysis (FA) Identification of the structure of an object or of a statement through the decomposition of an object in smaller parts according to a predefined rule = structureOrigin of term: it dates back to the “Analytica Priora”, where Aristotle introduces syllogistic method, argues for correctness, and discusses inductive inference.Information system: a system of functions that collect, process, store and distribute informationFunction:An activity with an outcomeExample in Information Systems: “read”Functional analysis of information systems:Scope: defines the functions of an information system according to a given modelPurpose: defines what the system should do (i.e. the functions) regardless the implementation technology
6 Definition 2 : Requirements analysis (Wikipedia 2012) In systems engineering and software engineering, encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as beneficiaries or users.It is an early stage in the more general activity of requirements engineering which encompasses all activities concerned with eliciting, analyzing, documenting, validating and managing software or system requirements.Requirements analysis is critical to the success of a systems or software project.Requirements should be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, traceable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design.
7 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap DefinitionsISA domains & levelsISA analysis techniquesReview questions4
8 ISA modelling levels Layer Target Notations Explanation ASL Aggregate StrategicAggregate needsList / GridNeeds are aggregate and expressed by simple notations, as grids or listsRSLRich Semantic LayerDetailed needsDiagrams Specification languagesNeeds are detailed and expressed by diagramsRSL is conceptual and neglects the implementation of requirementsSEISoftware Engineering InterfaceSoftwareDiagrams Specification & programming languagesTransforms RSL into a notation targeting software engineersIn most cases such notation is executable.
9 ISA modelling domainsThe analysis should cover the aspects of the system the users perceive, that we term as “domains”.DomainExplanationInformationDescribes the structure and properties of the information the system shall use (database)Process (workflow)Describes the workflow of the business processes and related execution rulesUser interfaceDescribes the user interface, through which information is distributed to (or collected from) users.
10 ISA modelling grid Analysis Layer Analysis Domain Information Business functionsUser InterfaceASLBusiness Information ModelsBusiness models (e.g. financial mathematical models; KPI)Stakeholder / Goal Oriented Conceptual ModelsESLConceptual Information ModelsUML & BPMN (flow intensive systems)SEIImplementation Frameworks / PlatformsImplementation Frameworks / PlatformsGUI Implementation Frameworks/ Platforms
11 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap DefinitionsISA domains & levelsISA analysis techniquesReview questions4
12 ASL / information: SIRE Analysis LayerAnalysis DomainInformationProcessUser InterfaceASLRSMSEISIRE (Strategic Information Requirements Elicitation) is a catalog of the information domains of an enterprise.It uses a grid model, where information domains are layered into information levels, namelymaster informationevent informationanalytic informationDeveloped in University of Pavia (2008)Information DomainInformation LevelMasterEventAnalysisDomain 1……Domain n
13 ASL / Process: GEFAnalysis LayerAnalysis DomainInformationProcessUser InterfaceASLRSMSEIGEF (General Enterprise Framework) lists the activities of business processes (BP) at the respective layers:Planning (e.g. Sales Planning)Execution (Proposal and Selling tasks)Monitoring to check execution workflow (where is the order of Mr. Smith?)Control to appraise actual results (are we on budget?)Information, to manage information collection, storage and distributionDeveloped in University of Pavia (2012)LayerBusiness ProcessProcess 1Process …Process NPlanningExecutionMonitoringControlInformation
14 RSM / Information: ER & DFM Analysis LayerAnalysis DomainInformationProcessUser InterfaceASLRSMSEIER (Entity Relationship)Models information at a conceptual levelNot for analytic informationDeveloped by Chen (1976)DFM (Dimensional Fact Model)Models analytic information by a specific notation.It is a conceptual techniqueDeveloped in University of Bologna (1998)
15 RSM / Process: BPM & UML BPMN (Business Process Management Notation) Analysis LayerAnalysis DomainInformationProcessUser InterfaceASLRSMSEIBPMN (Business Process Management Notation)Models the flow of business processes.Typically a BPMN flow details a GEF quadrant.UML-EP (Unified Modeling Language with the Erikson Penker estension)It is a business oriented extension of UML,It adds models to represent the flow of a Business ProcessIt supports the elicitation of Use Cases and Candidate Database Entities
16 RSM / User Interface : GOA Analysis LayerAnalysis DomainInformationProcessUser InterfaceASLRSMSEIGOA (Goal Oriented Analysis)The analyst identifies the goals of each user class and the actions implied on the systemActions are candidate use casesIt is a conceptual techniqueDeveloped in Politecnico di Milano (2004)
17 SEI levelAnalysis LayerAnalysis DomainInformationProcessUser InterfaceASLRSMSEISEI (Software Engineering Interface) is the final transformation stage, into which conceptual notations are transformed into executable languages.Various modeling techniquesBPEL (Business Process Executive Language) for workflow implementationUML (Unified Modeling Language) for object oriented development (Class Diagrams & Use Cases)Relational model for databases and data warehouses
18 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap DefinitionsISA domains & levelsISA analysis techniquesReview questions418
19 Review questions Preliminary definitions Modeling grid May an individual i belong to different classes A, B, C ? In which case yes and in which not?Consider a simple class e.g. a Volkswagen GolfWhat is an individual of Volkswagen Golf class?What is a specialization of Volkswagen Golf?Is Volkswagen Golf an aggregation of Engine, Car-body etc.?Describe the overall model taxonomyDescribe constructions types and interpretation of Model M*Could you define a Model richer then M?Modeling gridWhich are the differences between User Needs and User Requirements?Define Levels and Domains of Functional Analysis in terms ofObjectivesModeling Level