3 Meaning of Joint Products Goods jointly produced in fixed proportions:Interdependence in productionSingle marginal cost curve for both products or product package; e.g., beef & hidesHowever, demand curves & MR curves are independentPricing decision must recognize inter-dependence in productionMarginal revenue of product package is vertical sum of two MR curves;
4 Pricing of Joint Products w/o Excess production of Hides Prices etc.MRTMCMRTDBMRBPBMRHPHMRBDHX*MRHQuantity
5 Pricing of Joint Products with Excess production of Hides Prices etc.MRTMRTDBMRBPBMRHMCPHMRBDHXHMRHQuantityXB
6 Advertising Assumptions Firm sets only one price Firm knows Q(P,A) How quantity demanded depends on price and advertising128
7 Effects of Advertising If the firm advertises,its average and marginalrevenue curves shift tothe right -- average costsrise, but marginal costdoes not.AR’MR’AC’ARMRAR and MR are averageand marginal revenue whenthe firm doesn’t advertise.Q1P1$/QMCQ0P0ACQuantity136
8 Advertising Choosing Price and Advertising Expenditure A Rule of Thumb for Advertising137
9 Advertising A Rule of Thumb for Advertising To maximize profit, the firm’s advertising- to-sales ratio should be equal to minus the ratio of the advertising and price elasticities of demand139
10 Advertising – An Example R(Q) = $1 million/yr$10,000 budget for A (advertising--1% of revenues)EA = 0.2 (increase budget $20,000, sales increase by 20%EP = -4 (markup price over MC is substantial)Should the firm increase advertising?YESA/PQ = -(0.2/-4) = 5%Increase budget to $50,000
11 Cost-Plus (Mark-up) Pricing Traditional assumption of theory is that firms increase production until MR = MC and then charge a price according to the demand curveIn reality, many firms use cost plus pricing – setting prices that cover the cost of purchasing or producing a product plus enough profit to allow the firm to earn its target rate of return
12 Mechanics of Cost-Plus Pricing First, determine the total costs of purchasing or producing the productHere Q is used to determine P, but in actuality, Q is determined by PThis problem is overcome by using an assumed value of Q, say some percentage of the firm’s capacity
13 Mechanics of Cost-Plus Pricing Then determine the markup over costThe overall objective is to allow the firm to earn its targeted rate of returnIf the return requires $X of total profit, then the per unit markup will be $X/QHence, the price is given by the formula:
14 Mechanics of Cost Plus Pricing Sum of the last 2 terms in the given formula i.e. AFC + X/Q is called the Gross Profit Margin (GPM)The per unit targeted profit (on investment) = X/Q is called the Net Profit Margin (NPM)Hence, a modified mark-up formula can be written as:where K (mark-up proportion) = GPM/AVCPrice = (1 + K) AVC
15 Mark-up Pricing Model At normal output Qn, AVC=QnB; D2 AFC=KQn=BC; net profit margin (NPM)=CFWhen demand shifts up to D2, then Q=OQ2, NPM=C2F2, with GPM constantWhen demand shifts down to D1, then Q=OQ1, NPM=C1F1, with GPM constantD2DD1
16 Evaluation of Cost-Plus Pricing - Advantages Contributes to price stability – price changes may be expensive and provoke undesirable reactions by competitorsFormula is simple and easy to useLess information is required for cost-plus than for marginal cost pricingProvides a clear justification for price increases (whenever cost increases)
17 Evaluation of Cost-Plus Pricing - Disadvantages Does not take demand conditions into accountCost data may be the wrong – e.g. historical costs or accounting costsMost applications are based on fully distributing common costs to the various goods produced
18 Cost-Plus Pricing and Economic Theory Cost plus pricing appears to be inconsistent with economic theory’s postulate of profit maximizationHowever, cost plus pricing may be a tool used by businesses in pursuing long-run profit maximizationFrequently, long run marginal and average costs are not greatly different. So, use of average cost as a basis for pricing is a reasonable approximation of marginal cost pricingIf markup over cost is based on demand conditions then cost-plus pricing may not be inconsistent with profit-maximization
19 Cost-Plus Pricing and Economic Theory Thus price P is a markup over costs AC. The markup is a function of price elasticity of demand.Thus cost-plus pricing may simply be the mechanism by which managers pursue profit maximization.Obtaining additional information necessary to generate estimates of marginal costs and revenues may be prohibitively expensive.Thus cost-plus pricing may be the most rational approach to maximizing profits.
20 Limit PricingLimit price is the maximum price that an oligopolistic firm can charge above minimum long run average cost (LAC), without inducing new entry.Condition of Entry (E): It measures the extent to which new entry is difficult. (e.g. E=0 when entry is free).where PL= Limit Price and PC= Perfect competition Price.Hence,PL = PC (when entry is free ) and PL > PC (when entry is difficult)E= ( PL- PC) / PCPL = PC * (1 + E)
21 Models of Limit Pricing Determination of Limit Price under Oligopoly depends upon whether entry is difficult due to I. Absolute Cost DisadvantageORII. Relative Cost Disadvantage faced by the new entrant in the market.Accordingly there are 2 models of Limit Pricing, both assuming L-shaped long run average cost (LAC) curve.
22 Limit Pricing with Absolute Cost Disadvantage Absolute cost disadvantage means that LAC of the new entrant is located above that of the existing firm at all output levels (presuming that the vertical distance between the two is always same).Assumptions:1. Products of both firms are homogeneous.2. Existing firm keeps its output constant, even in the face of new entry.3. L-shaped LAC curve. (i.e. no diseconomies of scale exist).
23 Absolute Cost Disadvantage - Diagrammatic View Since new entrant can at best supply Qm at PL, existing firm choosesto supply QL at PL, because if P<PL, new entrant can’t enter for fearof loss, whereas at P>PL (e.g. at P3), new entrant is rewarded withsuper-normal profit. Thus, PL is the limit priceNew entrantExisting firm
24 Limit Pricing with Relative Cost Disadvantage Relative cost disadvantage arises when the optimum scale of output is very large compared to existing total demand, hence compelling the new entrant to supply sub-optimal output.Hence either price would fall after entry ( if entrant enters with optimum scale output) or entrant’s output would be sub-optimal if price is to remain unchanged.Assumptions:1. Existing firms keep their output constant.2. LAC is L-shaped and same for new and existing firms.3. Products for all firms are homogeneous.4. New firm enters with the optimum scale.
25 Relative Cost Disadvantage - Diagrammatic View Assuming that the new entrant can enter at optimum scale Qm at P=Pc,the existing firm supplies QL=Qc – Qm at P=PL. If the existing firm choosesP>PL (e.g, at P2), then total supply will be Q3=Qm + Q2, inducing P to fallto P3, which provides super-normal profit to the new entrant. Hence, P can’texceed PL. If, on the other hand, P<PL (E.g.P4),then total supply will be Q5=Q4 + Qm, resultingIn lower P=P5, at which new entrant will suffer loss.Hence, PL is the limit price.
26 General Diagram for Entry Limiting Pricing With monopoly price-quantity combination(Pm, Qm), Π=PmADC. If limit price is fixedat PL, Π=PLBCE and Q=QL. Now, super-normal profit is still positive but less. Nowa new entrant with Q<QL’ will face loss,thus P=PL acts as a barrier to small-scaleentry.$/QMCACD=ARMRPmABPLDECQMQL’QLQuantity12
27 Implications of limit pricing ΠThe blue or red path will be chosen depending upon whether t>T or t<THigher discount rate would favor the red path,while a lower one would favor the blue one.Discounted profit streamunder limit pricingDiscounted profit stream underusual profit-maximizationTime (t)T