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Background New Imperialism Africa and Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Background New Imperialism Africa and Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Background New Imperialism 1870-1914 Africa and Asia

2 Introduction 1815: by this time world witnessed 400 yrs of imperialism (European expansion) Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, French and British were leading Imperialists Western Maritime powers led the race for new lands and resources Purpose for control over non-Euro peoples included: Trade Missions Settlement Looting Conquests National pride

3 Introduction Cont’ Imperial powers cross land as well
Ottoman Turks, Habsburgs, Teutonic tribes, Franks (Charlemagne), Napoleon, Russian advance into Asia and E. Europe & U.S. expansion westward Nothing new to European (West) expansion by 1870 Yet… ‘imperialism’ is word associated w/ 19th century

4 New Imperialism Brit economist J.A. Hobson argues:
Colonial expansion attributed to economic factors “…the economic taproot of imperialism [was] excessive capital in search of investment…” Religious, political or cultural motives existed, but w/in realm of Capitalism Profit driven competition Imperialism exploited lesser developed regions for: Cheap labor New, cheap raw materials Good investments New markets

5 Cold Shoulder to Imperialism
Prior to 1870 there seemed to be a shift away from colonies By 1815 France lost most colonies in America Spain lost most of her territories in S. America 13 colonies broke free of Britain 1822- Portugal lost Brazil 1861- France opened her colonies to free trade with all nations Economist Adam Smith argued: “burdens of colonialism outweighed all its benefits…” These are strange events that took place on eve of 1870s…

6 Economic Imperialism? 1870s became a scramble for overseas territories
Economic forces were important but don’t explain: France (not industrialized) doubled colonial expansion between 1815 & 1870 French footholds in Algeria, Senegal, Indochina, and Tunisia British trade w/ America increased after Revolution German economic penetration into eastern Europe increased but no territories became German colonies

7 New Imperialism Leaders sought overseas markets:
France, Germany, Italian territories and Austrians vying for power on European continent Germany and France becoming more industrial powerful by 1880s Benefits Britain as Continental powers weakened one another Long Depression ( ) in Europe Price inflations weakened businesses Governments promoted internal growth and trade Abandoned free trade to protect domestic industries Leaders sought overseas markets: overseas colonies would provide export markets free of foreign competition, while supplying cheap raw materials.

8 Imperialism in Africa & Asia
Imperialism of Africa and Asia took place during an era where ruthless, rivalry and jealousy prominent between European powers No international organization existed to broker, mediate or organize European rush for new territories New Imperialism was power politics- projected on overseas conquests Economic force behind it was to find markets for industrial and capital investment


10 Attractions of Africa and Asia
Home of many raw materials needed by the increased # of factories in Europe Cotton, silk, rubber, vegetable oils and minerals among the materials Open territories were ripe for settlement, thus creating a new market Port areas sought – for Navy and Merchant purposes Infrastructure created to increase transportation of raw material to coastal area Drive for Africa led by French and Dutch followed by Britain


12 Other Factors for Imperialism
Adventurers and Missionaries also led expansion in conquered territories National strength ensured by territorial conquest- Nationalism became product of foreign policy and security Individual desire for wealth, adventure and scientific discovery led people to trek vast areas of untamed land in Africa and Asia Missionaries sent to Africa to convert the ‘heathen’ to Christianity Others came to new territories w/ purpose of looting/stealing Imperialism led by: Gov’t bureaucrats, botanists, soldiers, capitalists, bankers, businessmen, buccaneers, and the Bible

13 Effects of Imperialism
Scholars, teachers and laypeople vary in their interpretations of imperialism’s ramifications Positive: Imperialists built roads, railways, ports, financial institutions, schools, better health care and better sanitation Negative: No one has ever said, “I’m happy my freedom and liberties were taken from me…”, laborers were exploited, culture was stolen, people were resettled, taken from families, religion was forced upon imperialized people, raw materials were stripped away, liberties were not granted

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