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Chapter 39 - Endocrine and Reproductive system

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1 Chapter 39 - Endocrine and Reproductive system
The Endocrine System Human Endocrine Glands The Human Reproductive System Fertilization and Development

2 Hormone substance produced in one part of the body an organism that affects another part of same individual Steroid hormone Nonsteroid hormone

3 Steroid vs Nonsteroid hormones
Steroid hormones include cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone. Non-steroid hormones include epinephrine, dopamine, insulin, norepinephrine, serotonin, and vasopressin. Steroid hormones, like estrogen, directly affect gene expression in their target cells. These hormones are lipid soluble and can diffuse directly through the the plasma membrane of a cell to bind with special receptors in the nucleus. Once the steroid hormones and receptors are bound together, the hormone receptor complex activates specific genes and cause those genes to be expressed. In the case of estrogen, the ovaries are stimulated to produce eggs

4 Target Cell cell affected by a particular hormone

5 Exocrine Gland gland that release its secretions through tubelike structures called ducts include sweat glands, salivary glands and digestive glands

6 Endocrine Glands glands that releases its secretions into the bloodstream

7 Prostaglandin Prostaglandin are not hormones but act as chemical messengers. They are modified fatty acids produced by a wide range of cells and generally affects only nearby cells and tissues. They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects, such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue

8 Pituitary gland - Master gland
gland in the base of the skull that secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and control the actions of several other glands

9 Pituitary Hormones 1.Adrenocorticotropiic Hormone (ACTH) - increases the production of corticosteroids 2.Luteinising Hormone (LH) - triggers ovulation or production of testosterone 3. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - growth development, maturation and reproductive process 4.Growth Hormone (GH): Causes body cells to absorb amino acids and form protein for growth. The main function is to cause the elongation of bones overprodution causes dwarfism. 5. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): Combines with iodine at the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. Overproduction of GH causes gigantism and underproduction causes dwarfism Prolactin (PRL):. 6. Prolactin (PRL) stimulates milk formation by the breast after the birth of the baby 7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) 8.Oxytocin: stimulates muscle contraction of uterus during birth, stimulates muscle contraction in the milk ducts during breast-feeding. w causes increased water reabsorption by kidneys.

10 Diabetes Mellitus condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the amount of glucose in the blood

11 Ovary

12 Ovarian cyst

13 Testes

14 Prostate cancer The prostate gland produces a substance called PSA, or prostate specific antigen. A small amount of PSA can be found in blood, but it is mostly present in semen. A blood test is done to measure the amount of PSA and a normal reading is 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood.

15 Fertilization

16 Gastrulation

17 Embryo/Fetus development

18 Homo sapiens

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