4 Interactionism: 1. “A theoretical position assuming that the individual is not only influenced by his/her environment, but that s/he also influences his/her environment. The emphasis is on the person taking an active, or constructive, part in his/her development
5 2.” Interactionism is a social-psychological theory that the self is formed by interacting with others and that social life depends on the ability to imagine ourselves in other social roles.”
6 Concepts in interactionism 2.Social actions3.Symbols
7 1. InteractionInteractions take place between two or more individuals , and include all uses of language , exchange , confrontation , and working with others. The goal of all such interactions is communication . Through their interactions , people become active participants in creating their social world.
8 2.Social actionsFor social interactionists , people negotiate their social world by adapting to different situations . These situations are largely considered to be the result of actions taken by others. People take purposive action toward goals and desires within the restrictive situations in which they find themselves.
9 3.SymbolsIndividuals interpret social actions symbolically to give meaning to their actions . (symbol =mutually understood gesture) Vocal gesture allows the speaker to reflect on the message as well as the other listeners The meaning of these symbols is itself a matter of social construction. They have meaning only in so far as people agree they do. Symbols, therefore, are said to have meaning by virtue of intersubjective agreement ,or agreement between individual subjects.
10 Symbolic Interaction: Also known as interactionism involves two or more peopleRequires cooperation and shared understanding of the social objectImportance of the gesture.“Human behavior is interpreted as a response to the symbolic act of others.” The approach focuses on creating a framework for building a theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
11 Roles and InteractionFunctionalismInteractionism
12 FunctionalismMacro-Emphasizes larger units such as institutions or culturesDemands of roles and social interaction are situationalEnforced by sanctions of the groupDeviance and individual difference is abnormal
13 Interactionism Micro-Emphasizes individuals Focus on subjective aspects of social lifeStudies communication between individuals and groupsCommunicates with symbols which are meaningfulDeviance and individual differences are more tolerated
15 Charles Horton CooleyCooley identified the influence of the environment on behavior.People learn to act as society wants them to act.Individuals modify their behaviors as the situation dictates( )
16 George Herbert Mead “Father of Symbolic Interactionism” Called his approach “social behaviourism”“I” = self-conception“Me” = views of others( )
17 Mead’s Me & I“Me” is the socialized self. “Me” is what is learned in interaction with others. Including both knowledge about the environment/society, and who he/she is; their sense of self.“I” can learn who I am by observing the responses of others. The “I” is the unsocialized self. It is the subject of one’s actions.
18 Herbert BlumerCoined the term “symbolic interaction” “is based on the idea that social reality is constructed in each human interaction through the use of symbols, such as, words or gestures.” Studying symbolic interaction assists us in understanding human behavior.Student of Mead( )
19 Limitations of Interactionism Theory is vaguehard to summarizeLacks clarityDiffering interpretationsdifferent people have attached different meanings to the theorySome theorists overstate their caseas when Mead differentiates humans from other animalsAssessment may be unreliablesubjective measures