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Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

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1 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
Scholarly publishing today: new models for scientific visibility Maarten van Bentum (University Library) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

2 Scientific publishing models
The ‘traditional’ publishing model The Open Access model The hybrid publishing model Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

3 The ‘traditional’ publishing model
Main characteristics Article to (commercial) publisher journal Author officially transfers copyright to publisher Publisher obtains exclusive publication rights Author looses control over his/her article Peer-review organized by publisher Journal access by reader’s subscription (demand-paid) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

4 The ‘traditional’ publishing model
Advantages Formal quality control (peer review) Journal status (‘branding’) Disadvantages Time consuming (between initial submission and publication) Limited exposure because of high journal subscription rates (depending on deals between libraries and publishers) Less citations Transfer of copyrights Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

5 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model OA publications are those made freely available online to anyone anywhere, with no charges imposed for access More information: Budapest Open Access Initiative (2001): Two ‘roads’ Open Access journals Online self-publishing or –archiving (Repositories) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

6 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model OA Journals More than 3600, almost 1260 searchable at article level Free online access Supply paid instead of demand paid: change of financial flows in scientific institutions Directory of Open Access Journals (see also UB website/Find databases for searching) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

7 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model Self-publishing or –archiving Author offers publications (not necessarily final publisher’s version) full text and freely available for everyone on the internet own or institution’s website open institutional repository (=online freely accessible institution’s archive of scientific publications) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

8 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model Advantages Rapid publication of scientific work No transfer of copyrights More citations Online self-archiving see: Brody, T. and Harnad, S. (2004). Comparing the Impact of Open Access (OA) vs. Non-OA Articles in the Same Journals. D-Lib Magazine 10(6). Open access journals see: Eysenbach, G. (2006). Citation Advantage of Open Access Articles PLoS Biol 4(5) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

9 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
Relation between number of citations and open access (computer science) The figure shows the probability that an article is freely available online as a function of the number of citations to the article, and the year of publication of the article. The results are dramatic, showing a clear correlation between the number of times an article is cited and the probability that the article is online. More highly cited articles, and more recent articles, are significantly more likely to be online, in computer science. Source: Lawrence, S. (2001) Free online availability substantially increases a paper's impact. Nature 411 (6837): 521 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

10 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model Disadvantages No (self-archiving) or less (OA journals) formal quality control (peer review) No branding by journal status (self archiving) or less scientific status (OA journals) No official citation (self-archiving) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

11 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model Driving forces (1990s) Serials crisis (financial conditions of scientific communication: economy-push) World Wide Web (new medium for scientific communication: technology-push) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

12 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model Serials crisis – the economical factor Rising costs of scholarly journals since late 1980s Slower rise or even diminishing library budgets Canceling of subscriptions Increasing subscription prices Decreasing availibility scientific knowledge Decreasing scientists’ exposure and citation Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

13 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model World wide web – the technological factor First preprint archive: Los Alamos National Laboratory (1991) Increasing full text availibility of publications on author’s and/or institution’s website since introduction of first webbrowser (Mosaic ) Open Archives protocol (1999) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

14 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
The Open Access model Recent developments Institutional repositories based on OAi-protocol (1999 …) Open Access journals (1999, British Medical Journal) Budapest Open Access Initiative (2001, Less publishers constraints for open access (2003 …): author-friendly copyright conditions, embargo policy Mandates (2005 …): open access policy of funding agencies (27), research institutes/universities (22) and European Commission Hybrid models: hybrid journals and parallel publishing Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

15 The Hybrid publishing model
Combination of traditional and Open Access model Two forms: Hybrid journals Parallel publishing Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

16 The Hybrid publishing model
Hybrid journals Author pays publisher a certain amount of money to offer the journal article in Open Access Example: Springer Open Choice (contract between Springer and Dutch UKB:1250 articles for OA in a certain year at no cost) List of ‘hybrid journals’: Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

17 The Hybrid publishing model
Parallel publishing Using both publishers channel and online self-publishing/archiving (institutional repositories) Publishers’ conditions for parallel publishing: Copyright issues in higher education: Licence to publish (copyright conditions more in favour of author): Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

18 Open Access Repositories
Institutional repositories for scientific output All Dutch universities and many in other countries Worldwide scientific network (Open Archives protocol) Long-term preservation by e-depot (National Library of the Netherlands) Searchable by Google (general, worldwide), Narcis/Darenet (scientific, Netherlands), Base – Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, and Scientific Commons (scientific, international) Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

19 Maarten van Bentum (University Library)
UT-repository Almost 6800 full text scientific UT publications freely accessible for everyone and another 800 accessible on campus Another 3500 records with bibliographic data only Dissertations, journal articles, congress papers, research reports, etc. More than 1200 full text UT student theses Homepage University Library – UT publications and UT Student theses Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

20 Searching in repositories
Narcis (Darenet / Promise of Science/Cream of Science) ( Base ( Scientific Commons ( UT repository ( Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

21 Submitting to UT-repository
Archiving full text publication (and long-term preservation) Accessible on open internet only after copyright-check by the library Author remains copyright owner Submit link on homepage UT repository or to or Cd-rom to: University Library University of Twente P.O. Box 217 7500 AE Enschede Maarten van Bentum (University Library)

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