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The MBA guide to Emotional Intelligence and Social Networking

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1 The MBA guide to Emotional Intelligence and Social Networking
Edited by Bud Labitan, MD, MBA and Tim Milan, MBA

2 Our Goal Provide a summary of Emotional Intelligence and Social Networking ideas that promote an increased level of win-win networking interaction among Purdue University Calumet School of Management MBA and MBAE Faculty, Students and Alumni.

3 E I ?...WHAT IS IT? EI is a different way of measuring intelligence.
EI is knowing your feelings and recognizing their influence in the decision making process. EI is being able to identify and manage your moods to control your impulses. EI is staying motivated, hopeful and optimistic when you experience setbacks. EI is recognizing what people around you are feeling and reacting to it positively.(empathy)

4 The 6 Key Skills of Emotional Intelligence
Self Awareness Empathy Managing Emotions Communication Cooperation Conflict Resolution Social Skills refer to getting along with people, managing emotions and relationships, effective communication, persuasion, and leadership.

5 MANAGING EMOTIONS Understand how hope can be an asset.
Understand what happens when emotions get the upper hand. Know how to pause and judge a moment for appropriateness. Find ways to deal with anger, fear, anxiety and sadness. Learn how to channel emotions to a positive end.

6 COMMUNICATION: Good communication skills foster quality relationships.
Being able to authentically express personal concerns without anger or passivity is a key asset. Enthusiasm, optimism, pessimism and negativity are all contagious. What feelings are being communicated to others? How? ( body language, tone of voice, inflection )

7 COOPERATION: Know how and when to take the lead and when to follow.
Learn how to value others’ contributions and encourage participation. Recognize the consequences of decisions and actions. Follow through on commitments. Take responsibility for your own actions. REMEMBER: Effective leadership is the art of helping people work toward common goals- NOT DOMINATION

8 RESOLVING CONFLICT: Understand the mechanisms at work.
People in conflict are usually locked into a self perpetuating emotional spiral. Usually the declared subject of conflict is NOT the key issue. Need to learn how to use the skills previously discussed to resolve conflict.


10 Your E.I. “value-enhanced skills” may help in future Bargaining or Negotiations
Zone of Agreement Seller’s Surplus Buyer’s Surplus S X B $ Seller’s RP Buyer’s RP Final Contract Price

11 Shaping Attitudes Beliefs, feelings and judgments about situations, ideas and objects are formed over time. Based on direct experience, therefore learned. Genetic physiological makeup may create a predisposition to acquire certain attitudes. These are more resistant to change.

12 The Self Talk Cycle SELF-TALK - Positive - Negative BEHAVIOUR

13 Influences on Attitudes
Shared Perceptions Social comparison leads to reevaluation of our beliefs, and it increases media influence. Consistent Information Inconsistent information makes us uncomfortable. Must be consistent across different modalities and time. Tend to be much influenced by first impressions

14 Social Cognition Persuasive Communication
Central Route: We focus on the message. Reasoned, rational arguments are more effective. Peripheral Route: We are distracted by noise, other thoughts, etc. Personality and credibility of messenger, appeal to emotions are more effective.

15 Cognitive Dissonance State of tension when two or more cognitions are psychologically inconsistent. Competing cognitions. Internal conflict between values, attitudes and beliefs (Festinger, 1957). Subjective and it makes us uncomfortable. Can lead to attitude or behavior change. Act to relieve the discomfort of the dissonant cognitions.

16 Social Interaction Affiliation Reading Nonverbal Behaviour.
Self Presentation (Impression Management) Influence of Others Helping or Hurting Others Liking and Loving Others

17 One-To-One Interactions
Influence/Compliance Principles (Cialdini, 1975): Foot-in-the-door techniques—once they agree to a small request . . . Door-in-the-face technique—start big and back off (reciprocity principle). Four walls technique—once they say “yes” a couple of times (telemarketing). Low ball techniques—once they’re committed (car sales, bait and switch).

18 Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Influence
Reciprocation Consistency Social Proof Liking Authority Scarcity

19 One-To-One Interactions Compliance Principles
Comparison of FID and DIF techniques (Harrari et al., 1980)—all significantly different: FID—33.3% compliance DIF—78.0% compliance Control—56.8% compliance. Among college faculty, starting larger and reducing request (DIF) works best. Faculty respond least well to the moderate request when it’s preceded by a smaller one. Better to just ask for the larger.

20 One-To-One Interactions Obedience and Conformity
Social conformity Milgram’s famous experiments (early 1960s) “Just following orders.” Ethical issues. Applications to real world situations Hofling, et al. (1966) Rank & Jacobson (1977)

21 Many-To-One Interactions Existing within Social Forces
We act differently with others than we would alone. Kurt Lewin (1st social psychologist) Behaviour is the function of the person interacting with the environment. Developed Social Field Theory based on physics. We exist in a field of active forces. Internal forces—desires, goals, abilities. External forces—pressure from others, responsibility, obligations.

22 Many-To-One Interactions Existing within Social Forces
Bibb Latane Social Impact Theory—We can measure the effect of forces that act on an individual (pulse, blushing, beliefs, values, attitudes, cognitions). The impact is multiplicative and depends on: Strength of the force—importance to individual. Immediacy of the force—how close, either physically or psychologically. Number of forces, including those at a distance.

23 Many to One Social Impact Theory
More forces, more total impact but each individual force has less influence. Distance diminishes influence of source.

24 Social Impact Theory Blah, blah, blah. More targets, less influence on each one: diffusion of social impact.

25 Many-To-One Effect on Performance
Effect of an audience Social facilitation—improved performance of simple tasks or when highly skilled. Social inhibition—impaired performance of complex tasks or when unskilled. Presence of others is arousing Yerkes-Dodson: optimal level of arousal for each individual. Performance peaks at optimum level of arousal.

26 Many-To-One Effect on Behaviour
Social Loafing May work less hard in a group (Latane’s shouting study). Tend not to pull our weight in a group if individual performance cannot be identified.

27 Many-To-One Effect on Behaviour
Bystander Apathy Bystander Effect: Reluctance to come to the aid of someone in trouble when there are others around. Like social loafing. Affected by Diffusion of responsibility Social inhibition Ambiguity Pluralistic ignorance

28 Many-To-Many How We Behave in Crowds
People in crowds do things they would not do when alone. Social restraint--conforming to social norms. Deindividuation Lose self-awareness, individuality Zimbardo’s prison study Mob mentality

29 Social Psychology One-To-Many: Leadership
Social psychology tries to study leadership objectively: Studies of the personal characteristics of people perceived as strong leaders. Some commonalities. Good leaders are perceived as: More intelligent. More outgoing. More dominant.

30 Today’s Environment Pressure to grow
Downsizing corporate cultures have gone from vertical to horizontal Internal and external competition Increased work hours Increase in technological complexity Collaborative partnerships are replacing the old command-and-control hierarchy Higher level of stress Lack of balance in life

31 Why Leaders Fail Rigidity: They are unable to adapt to change.They are unable to take in or respond to feedback about the traits they need to change. Poor Relationships: They alienate those they work with by being too harshly critical, manipulative, insensitive, overly demanding or untrustworthy Study by Centre for Creative Leadership

32 What is Emotional Intelligence?
Factors that are related to success in life Helps us understand why some people do well in life while others fail Distinct from IQ (Cognitive Intelligence)

33 What Emotional Intelligence Is Not
Cognitive Intelligence (IQ) Aptitude Achievement Vocational Interest Personality Static - Results can change over time

34 EQ and Age

35 Problem Solving Ability to identify & define problems, and to generate & implement solutions: Defining problem Confident & motivated to tackle it Multiple solutions Decision to implement Conscientious, disciplined, methodical, systematic & persistent in solving problems

36 Social Responsibility
Acting responsibly, having a social conscience & concern for others Co-operative, contributing & constructive member of one’s social or work group Ability to do things for others

37 Social Networking Summary
Historically, academics have explained individual success based primarily on human capital (e.g., education, knowledge and skills, etc.)—”what you know” While this remains important, people also realize the importance of “who you know” People and companies that think carefully about networking can realize key benefits Access to new information, knowledge and opportunities Access to other forms of capital, most notably financial capital There are several principles that help people and organizations build “social capital” Creating a plan to build one’s network, or “pattern of connections” Avoiding unethical or improper use of networking Networking is not always beneficial, as there are some liabilities with establishing social relationships Cliques

38 Generally speaking, networking builds social capital
Generally speaking, networking builds social capital. Social capital is the value of a social network of contacts. The value of a network depends primarily on its structure the quality of relationships between its members the resources to which its members have access the resources which flow through the network (information,etc.) Actors, including individuals and groups / organizations, can increase the value of their social networks by being careful about the content, pattern, and quality of their networks.

39 Filial, Social, Religious
There are many types of social networks at both the organization and personal level, ranging from family relationships to hobby groups Filial, Social, Religious Education Work-Related Geography-Related Political Interest Related Personal / family contacts Church contacts Other social contacts (e.g., friends) Classmates Teachers / professors Mentors / protégés Bosses / subordinates Clients, suppliers, other business contacts Relationships with other workers Neighbors Town members E.g., local govmnt, community involvement relationships Political party / support group contacts E.g., Lexington town council members Personal relationships with people who share your interests E.g., golf club buddies Personal Level Relationships between families, social groups, churches Relationships between schools, universities, research groups Relationships between firms / organizations Customers Suppliers Alliance partners Financiers Alumni Auditors Industry groups Relationships between neighborhoods, towns, cities, etc. Relationships between political bodies Relationships between interest groups Group Level

40 Influence and Control Information Trust and Solidarity
However, the 4 main theories of social capital generally agree on 3 categories of benefits of developing and using social capital Benefits Example Influence and Control Ability to influence the actions of other people or organizations In some instances, ability to control the actions of other people or organizations Allows the holder of capital to get other people or organization to do what he or she wants them to do A corporation is able to influence a supplier’s decision not to merge with another supplier Information Can provide holder of social capital with information that is difficult or impossible to find elsewhere (assymetric information) Often this kind of information can improve decision making, or provide unique opportunities An individual is able to find out about unique job opportunities through a friend Trust and Solidarity Trust is beneficial to enhancing increased group interaction and can facilitate certain types of information and knowledge flow within an organization A corporation is able to influence a supplier’s decision not to merge with another supplier

41 The Virtuous Cycle of Social Capital
Like many other forms of capital, and perhaps to a greater degree, social capital creates a self-reinforcing virtuous cycle Influence and Control Increased information leads to increased influence and control Increased influence and control leads to increased information Increased trust and solidarity leads to increased influence and control Increased influence and control leads to increased trust and solidarity Social Capital Information Trust and Solidarity Increased information leads to increased trust and solidarity Increased trust and solidarity leads to increased information

42 Exclusivism / Cliqueism
Investing in social capital also entails risk. Cost / Inefficiencies As with all forms of capital, investment in social capital may not always be cost efficient. An actor may secure higher returns by investing in other forms of capital Exclusivism / Cliqueism The development of particularly tight social networks can often lead to an “clique” effect, where actors outside of the network feel unfairly excluded Excessive Claims An individual with strong social capital can receive too many requests for assistance, information, and access to his or her capital from others

43 Developing Social Capital Principles for Building and Using Social Capital
Become aware of the structure and pattern of your network and identify opportunities to broker valuable connections Identify unique groups and contacts that you have Develop plans to expand your network in key areas Principle 2 Develop strong relationships with key members of your network but realize the importance of weaker relationships It is often best to develop very strong relationships with only a core group of individuals Develop “lighter” relationships with a very broad network--as broad ass possible Principle 3 Treat your network with care Start networking early Develop a core group of contacts and develop deep friendships with them Keep your network’s best interest at heart Access your network frequently Provide network members with valuable information, service Principle 4 Constantly expand your network--doing so will increase its value to you and to others

44 Developing Social Capital Identify Your Need for Networking
Firms can also be evaluated against a social lifecycle where young, entrepreneurial firms require more extensive external networks than do mature, established firms Young Mature Firm Social Maturity Type of Networks Required External Internal Stage 1: Extensive External Network Required Investors Customers Suppliers Strategic business partners Stage 2: Internal and External Networks Required Viable revenue stream Solid financing and investor relationships Need to evaluate opportunity for new investment Stage 3: Network Closure Required, Look for Growth Opportunities Still need to cement external relationships However, internal innovation and next generation service requires increased internal networking The cycle begins again as the firm looks for new growth opportunities

45 PUCSOM: MBA Leadership
Leaders define reality and provide hope. Ken Chenault, CEO American Express

46 Thank You Any Questions or Comments

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