2 Today… This morning This afternoon Aims and context of Rahe et al studyThis afternoonProcedures of Rahe et al studyTimed essay on Rahe procedures(if time)
3 Questions What effect can stress have on our body? Can stress make you ill?What did Selye find about stress?
4 Context Psychosomatic: Relationship between stress and illness A link between psychological state and physical healthRelationship between stress and illnessImmune systemCardiovascular system (heart and blood)
5 ContextThinking back to PY1, what did Selye find in his research in his research on rats?Stress and illnessHolmes and HawkinsNot poverty itself which causes TB, but the emotional effects of poverty
6 ContextHawkins (1957)Compared TB patients to controls. Matched for age, race etc.Increase in “disturbing occurrences” in the TB patients.Is there a link between stressful events and illness?
7 Context Issues with methodology Research may lack…? There are biases inherent in using hospital samples and drawing conclusions from retrospective studies ... few attempts have been made to put the life stress and subsequent illness hypotheses in non hospital populations.Dr Richard Rahe
8 Context Another issue Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) All previous studies measure stress in different ways.Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)43 critical life events based on 5000 case studiesAll about life changes, both positive and negativeLife change units (LCU) calculated by asking 400 people to rate them in terms of stress
9 ContextCould we expose individuals to certain stressors, and measure their rate of illness? If not, why?Retrospective studies: issuesRecall from pastInvestigator effectsSample bias
10 AimsTo overcome the methodological issues of retrospective studies by carrying out a prospective study with more control.A normal population would be used (sailors)Investigate the relationship between stressful life events and future illness.
11 Procedures Read the procedure on pg 81 Fill in the blank information on the sheet
12 FindingsWhat was the relationship between Total Life Change Units (TLCU) and illness?What was the correlation co-efficient for the TCLUs six months before the cruise and illness while on board?Relationship stronger for cruiser 1 and 3, and for married men
13 Findings Decile groups All participants ranked in terms of their TCLUs and put into one of ten bands, each containing 10% of the total.
14 FindingsDecile groups show a general trend, but it was an uneven distribution.Groups banded into “High” and “low” illnessPlot this data into a bar chartHow clear is the relationship now?Look at scatter graph on pg 82. Summarise these results
15 Findings and conclusions More findingsRead pg 91. What last piece of evidence is there?ConclusionsWhat is the main conclusion?Read through the rest of theconclusions and highlight
16 Evaluating the methodology Pg 84 has some good evaluation points.Using the pointers on the handout, evaluate the studyOne evaluation point each, pass on.
17 Alternative Evidence Rubin et al (1972) Predictive relationship between SRE scores and later illness in naval aviators in vietnamIn other words, the higher the stress score, the more likely they were to be ill.What did Vidal (2006) and Gupta and Gupta (2004) Find?
18 Alternative Evidence Major life changes vs minor daily stress What minor stresses (hassles) can you think of?See daily hassles sheetDeLongis et al (1988)+.59 correlation between daily hassles and next day illnessTwo interpretations of this...
19 Alternative Evidence Rahe found a link between stress and illness Descriptive rather than explanatoryKiecolt-Glaser et al (1984).Blood tests taken before and during the exam period. Levels of natural killer cells significantly lower during the exam period.Suggests that short term predictable stressors reduce immune system functioning increasing illness.
20 Alternative EvidenceWhich piece of alterative evidence for Langer and Rodin could be used here?Could stress be good?Evans et al (1994)sIgA levels increase for very short term stressUse three colours to highlight research that supports, contradicts, or develops Rahe’s research (some may be more than one colour).