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MEMS PACKAGING & ASSEMBLY ISSUESSMTAi 2000 Chicago Ken Gilleo, PhD ET-Trends Intellisense © ET-Trends LLC
OUTLINE MEMS Introduction & Survey Packaging challengesAssembly issues MOEMS; let there be light* (optics) Conclusions * control © ET-Trends LLC
Nano World Where all technology converges Optics Electronics MechanicsThe convergence point of electronics, mechanics, physics, chemistry and biology, etc. Electronics Mechanics MEMS MOEMS OE OM Optics Where all technology converges © ET-Trends LLC
Micro-Electro-Mechanical SystemMEMS Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Semiconductor processing used Merges mechanical motion & electronics VERSATILE sensing computing motion control U of W Marauder MEMS Monster? © ET-Trends LLC
MEMS Processing Electronics fab: standard methods Silicon Machining:Define mechanical parts by lithography Form sacrificial SiO2 in “removal” areas Etch away SiO2 to free mechanical parts Many other micro-machining processes are available © ET-Trends LLC
MEMS Motion Deformable; cantilevers, beams, membranes Sliding, linearRotating; partial, full, multi-plane Rotating Inter-contact; gears, wheels Hinges Combinations Sandia, UW, AD © ET-Trends LLC
MEMS “Engines” Electrostatic; very efficient* Thermal ElectromagneticPneumatic Hydraulic Photoelectric *Surface area is relatively high, mass is very low; surface effects are important © ET-Trends LLC
MEMS Products © ET-Trends LLC
MEMS Structures IBM MEMS DNA Detector © ET-Trends LLCElectrostatic Relay - UW
More MEMS Are the Microbots” coming? Guess? © ET-Trends LLC TweezersUW-Madison
The real problem may be Lack of KNOWLEDGE,Packaging The real problem may be Lack of KNOWLEDGE, not Lack of TECHNOLOGY © ET-Trends LLC
Packaging Challenges MEMS devices can be very fragile pre-package handling concerns more protection by package Most require hermetic package ($$$) MOEMS (later) requires a window & controlled atmosphere. Biggest challenge: cost-effective, high volume packaging © ET-Trends LLC
MEMS Packaging Types Traditional hermetic; metal or ceramicCap-on-Chip wafer-level device-level Silicon Sandwich Near- and non-hermetic Selective/partial packaging © ET-Trends LLC
Packaging No Standards DPL Modules, TI (HERMETIC) (HERMETIC)Accelerometer (CAP) Ink Jet MEMS in TAB Package (SELECTIVE) © ET-Trends LLC (HERMETIC) MicroRelay - Cronos (HERMETIC) (HERMETIC)
Selective EncapsulationMEMS Ink Jet “Gun” I-TAB package This type of machine can be used to selectively encapsulate MEMS- one like this is used on ink jet cartridges. Courtesy of Speedline MEMS bare die © ET-Trends LLC
Cap-on-Carrier Silicon or Metal Cap Molded or Liquid EncapsulantMEMS IC Solder, weld, or polymer This packaging method is suitable for accelerometers, gyroscopes and other motion detectors that can be sealed. © ET-Trends LLC
Cap-on-Chip (level-0) CAP Vacuum MEMS ChipSeal Vacuum MEMS Chip Can now be handled like an ordinary die - almost! © ET-Trends LLC
Cap-on-Chip Variants Etched Silicon, ceramic, glassIndent Reflow Sealing (IMEC) Wafer-Level Protected (AMKOR) Silicon Sandwich; GIT Metal, low CTE? Plastic? © ET-Trends LLC
Cap-on-Chip Overmolding1. Apply cap to device or wafer; solder, weld, bond. MEMS IC May require gel coat to protect thin cap 2. Attach & bond device 3. Conventional overmolding followed by solder ball attach. © ET-Trends LLC
MOEMS Projection Mirrors Photonics Switches Gratings Fiber AlignersMicro-opto-electro-mechanical systems Projection Mirrors Photonics Switches Gratings Fiber Aligners Modulators, Shutters Movable Lenses A Market powered by the Internet! A Technology that will power the Internet! © ET-Trends LLC
Cronos (JDS-Uniphase)Optical MEMS or MOEMS Fiber Alignor Cronos (JDS-Uniphase) Micro-Mirror Lenses Array Rotating Mirror-UCLA Pop-Up Lens Micro-Mirror Array - TI © ET-Trends LLC Shutter - Sandia Cross-switch mirror
Micro-Mirror Close-up by TIon off World’s most complex machine? Ref. “Digital Light Processing TM for High-Brightness, High-Resolution Applications” Larry J. Hornbeck, © ET-Trends LLC
MOEMS Micro-Mirror WINDOW HEAT SINK HERMETIC Getter Weld or sealCeramic HEAT SINK HERMETIC 250,000 mirrors MEMS Digital Mirrors one section © ET-Trends LLC
Flip Chip for MOEMS? Light Pipe Encapsulant MEMS FLIP CHIP Underfill© ET-Trends LLC
MOEMS Flip Chip BGA PackageSeal or dam MEMS IC Light Pipe © ET-Trends LLC
GETTERS Agents that counteract harmful contaminants within a sealed package; this includes solids, liquids, gases and combinations. Will guard and control package environment over an extended time. © ET-Trends LLC
Types of Getters Particle: attracts and holds. Moisture: desiccant.Gas: adsorbs/chemically converts to liquid or solid. Combinations. Others are possible. © ET-Trends LLC
Why Use Getters? Remove harmful agents from the device environment.Control atmosphere for many years. Provide the maximum security and reliability; highest life expectance. Protect optics; mirrors, lenses Reduce wear © ET-Trends LLC
Available Getters Moisture Particle Hydrogen Combinations© ET-Trends LLC
Assembly Issues Safe handling; some are shock sensitiveOrientation; can be critical PWB & joint; change affects MEMS sensitivity Testing; not well established for some devices Free path; light, sound, molecules © ET-Trends LLC
Accelerometer ExampleFor air bags INOPERABLE Analog Devices Chip Sensing Mechanism (AD) High surface area = high attraction = “STICTION” Result of rough handling = “dead” component © ET-Trends LLC
Stiction Solutions Liquid lubricants Gases, vaporsPolymer films; Fluorinated Parylene Treatments Design; “no contact” © ET-Trends LLC
Assembly Factors Component skew Component non-coplanarityAll change accelerometer behavior Component skew Component non-coplanarity Solder joint mass and shape Flux residue Board thickness Board warpage © ET-Trends LLC
Conclusions MEMS: a key 21st century technologyThe packaging is more difficult Expect new & unusual packages Assembly has new constraints New guidelines are needed © ET-Trends LLC Let’s take the bite out of MEMS
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