3 Introduction Eric Proctor – Environmental Education Coordinator – Former classroom teacher (middle school science/social studies) Arizona Game and Fish Department – State agency responsible for the management of wildlife in Arizona
4 Definitions Native Species Non-native Species Invasive Species An organism that occurs naturally in an area, typically before humans An organism that originates in one location and is imported to a new location, introduced, exotic, alien, non-indigenous Non-native species that outcompete native species, noxious, nuisance
Impacts of Invasive Species 50,000 invasives established in US Total cost of $138 billion annually – Lost agricultural production – Decreased tourism and recreation – Does not include environmental losses and human health Invasive species is the second most serious threat to biodiversity Only real way to control is to prevent them from entering in the first place
Impacts of Invasive Species PLANTS 25,000 non-natives have escaped cultivation $20 billion in 90s for control and management Severely change the fire regime and nutrient cycles FISH May cost $6 billion annually Increase water turbidity and reduce native vegetation Dilute genetic pool
Impacts of Invasive Species BIRDS 10% of US species introduced 95% of those cause damage to property and crops and spread disease Pigeons carry over 50 known diseases and cost over $1 billion per year to control MAMMALS Rats destroy more than $19 billion in grain per year Feral cats kill about 465 million birds per year Feral dogs cause about $10 million per year in loss to livestock each year
Impacts of Invasive Species MOLLUSKS Zebra mussel already costs about $5 billion/year in control and repairs Expected to invade most fresh water bodies by 2020 ARTHROPODS 4500 arthropods introduced into US Red imported fire ant kills livestock at a cost of $1 billion/year Bark beetles have destroyed 2-3% of Arizonas forests, some areas have 90% tree loss
Impacts of Invasive Species HUMANS Smallpox, HIV/AIDS, syphilis, cholera, and bird flu are all invasive Cost to treat newborns with syphilis: $18 million/year Cost to treat US AIDS patients: $8 billion/year
Tracking and Predicting Movement Quagga Mussels in Arizona January 2007 – Detected in Lake Mead Later detected in Lake Mohave and Lake Havasu Fall 2007 – Detected in CAP canal in Scottsdale December 2007 – Detected in Lake Pleasant In your opinion: How are they moving? Where else might they be but not yet discovered? Where might we expect them to travel during the next year?