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Soil composed of sand, silt, and clay, organic matter, living organisms, and pore spaces
Soil classified according to percentage of sand, silt, and clay they contain.
Soil Particles vary greatly in size sand is the largest silt - mediumclay - smallest
Clay particles hold moisture and plant food elements more effectively than larger particles.
Soil Profile consists of 3 basic layers topsoil subsoil soil bedrock
Topsoil represents depth normally plowed
Subsoil deep rooting plants send roots down into subsoil
Sandy Soil silt and clay make up less than 20% by weight drain welllittle water holding capacity
Clayey Soil must contain at least 30% clayholds more moisture than is good for plants poor drainage
Loamy Soil most desirable soil equal parts sand, silt and clay
Soil Improvement Drainage change soil structureadd organic matter to encourage earth worms
Worms their tunnels and castings result in better soil structure - aggregation - clinging together
Drainage drainage tiles raise planting beds ditching between beds
Moisture retention adding organic matter (o.m.) sources of o.m.animal manure green manure - crop grown and plowed under to improve the soil
Sources of O.M. peat moss sawdust mulches - compost or wood chips
Mulches placed on the surface to help retain moisturereduce runoff and evaporation reduce weeds
Moisture retention irrigation
Fertilizing fertilize according to soil test results
Diseases plant resistant varieties chemicals soil pasteurizationheat to 180 degrees F for 30 minutes.
Nutritional deficienciesshow on leaves of plants Nitrogen - pale green leaves Phosphorus - purple color on underside of leaves
Planting Media Mixes Soil less mixesadvantages include : uniformity - doesn’t vary in pH, fertility or texture
advantages sterile lightweight good moisture retention and drainagefree of weed seeds
disadvantages light weight - pots tip in strong windminor elements are missing transplants may not adjust well to new media
Content of mixes perlite improve aeration volcanic origin
Vermiculite exploded Mica improves aeration
Plant food and fertilizersdivided into two groups Major elements (macro) Nitrogen - N Phosphorus - P Potassium - K
minor elements (micro)Calcium - Ca Magnesium - mg Sulfur - S Iron - Fe
minor elements (micro)Manganese - Mn Boron - B Copper - Cu Zinc - Zn
Plant requirements large amounts of major elementsrelatively small amounts of minor elements
Commercial fertilizersshows % or pounds per cwt. (100#) of the three major elements in large numbers on the container or bag.
Commercial fertilizers5-10-5 5% N, 10% P, 5% K remaining 80% is filler NP&K are always listed in that order.
Soil tests determine amount of elements needed for various plants.
Nitrogen generally purchased in one of four forms Nitrate of sodaammonium nitrate
Nitrogen ammonium sulfate urea formaldehyde
Nitrogen has most noticeable effect on plantsencourages above ground vegetative growth regulates use of other elements
Too much N lower disease resistanceweaken stem because of long soft growth lower fruit quality
Too much N delay maturity increase winter damage to plants
Not enough N yellow or light green color stunted root and top growth
N lost easily from soil leaching - being filtered down through soil with water not held by soil particles, dissolved in water O.M. holds insoluble N for slow release
Don’t use excess N quickly lost through leaching can damage plants
Phosphorous held tightly by soil particles not easily leached
Phosphorous effects plants in several ways encourage cell division
Phosphorous flowers and seeds don’t form without ithastens maturity, offsetting quick growth caused by N.
Phosphorous encourage root growth makes K more availableincrease disease resistance improves quality of grain, root and fruit crops
Phosphorous container plants can be damaged by excess Pincreases soluble salt content of medium causes dehydration of roots
Phosphorous Insufficient P purple color on underside of leafreduced flower fruit and seed production
Insufficient P susceptibility to cold injurysusceptibility to plant diseases poor quality fruit and seeds
Potassium modifies both fast soft growth of N and early maturity of Pis essential
Potassium increase disease resistance encourages healthy root systemsessential for starch formation
Potassium development of chlorophyll efficient use of CO2
Insufficient K leaves appear dry and scorched with irregular yellow areas on the surface
Lime CaCO3- Calcium Carbonate acts as a plant foodaffects soil acidity soil acidity affects availability of plant food elements
Lime furnishes Calcium
pH measure of acidity or alkalinity pH scale - runs from 0 - 14most plants grow best from
pH 7.0 is neutral pH of 7 or above is alkaline or basicpH below 7 is acidic
pH as numbers decrease, solution becomes more acidic.As numbers increase, solution becomes more basic or alkaline
pH if soil is too acidic, lime is added to raise the pHif soil is too alkaline, sulfur is added
Above ground environmenttemperature some plants prefer cool weather some plants prefer warm weather
Temperature there are temperatures above and below which plants stop growth generally, plant growth rate increases as temps increase up to about 90 degrees
Light must be present before plants can manufacture foodplants vary in light requirement effects flowering
Photoperiodism response to different periods of day and night in terms of growth and maturity
Photoperiodism short day plants chrysanthemum and Christmas Cactusbloom when days are short and nights are long
Photoperiodism long day plants lettuce and radishesbloom when days are long and nights are short
Photoperiodism day length indifferentdo not depend on length of light or darkness African Violet and tomato
Phototropism plants appear to grow towards the sun or light source
Humidity moisture level of the air most plants grow best in 40- 80% RHRelative Humidity
Humidity too high humidity may cause the spread of fungus diseases
Plant diseases and Insectsreduce production lower fruit and vegetable quality
Gases and Air ParticlesCO2 is vital to plants for Ps Air pollutants can cause damage
Air Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide - SO2 - from burning coalCarbon Monoxide - CO - exhaust from cars
Carbon Monoxide reduces plant growth can kill plants
Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers
Soil Properties Explain the properties of soils and their relationship to plant growth.
Requirements for Good Plant Growth
Environmental Requirements for Plant Growth. Unit 4.
Plant Nutrition INTRO TO SOILS CH 12. Plant Nutrition Many soil factors affect plant growth Difficult/expensive to improve However... Supply of soil nutrients.
HORT325: Soils & Fertilizers Soil Composition Soil Texture/Structure & Water Capacity Soil pH & Nutrient Availability Fertilizers Soil Testing.
Greenhouse Crop Management Sheila Dunning Commercial Horticulture.
Soil Much more than "dirt".
Interest Approach Collect samples of growing media. Some suggestions are water, sand, peat moss, gravel, garden soil, potting mix, etc. Have the students.
Plant Environment Fertilizers and Plants. Objectives Determine the roles of plant nutrients for plant growth. Describe the effects of external factors.
Unit C 4-8 Basic Principles of Agricultural/Horticultural Science.
Understanding Growing Media Components
Identifying Nutrient Deficiencies in Crops
Agriscience Unit 18: Plant Growth Soil or growing media pH Proper soil or growing media pH will have the most impact on the availability of nutrients.
Soilless Media Plant and Soil Science Standard 4 Objective 2.
ALL ABOUT SOIL.
Soil Properties Essential Standard Explain the role of nutrients and fertilizers.
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