4 Roles of Animals in Biotech Animals are involved in lab experiments.Without the use of animals humans might be in danger.
5 Animal Models Non-Living systems 4 models apply for the use of animals.Living animalsLiving animal tissues or systemsNon-Living systems
6 Animal ModelsComputer and Mathematical approaches
7 Living AnimalsThese animals are living and usually have no threat to their well being.Such animals may be known as laboratory or scientific animals.
8 Living AnimalsAgricultural Research often uses experimental groups of animals.
9 Living animal tissues or systems Animal tissues can be cultured in a lab.This saves the use of animals as well as the expense of feeding, housing, and cleaning up after the animals.
10 Non-Living SystemsInvolves using non living mechanical models that reflect animal activity.These often relate to skeletal movement and locomotion
11 Non-Living SystemsArtificial replacement parts, such as hip joints can be studied using non living systems.
12 Computer and mathematical approaches Computer simulations with virtual reality and other uses help in biotechnology.Computer modeling may be done with a propose biotechnology practice before it is tested with animals.
13 Laboratory animalsA laboratory animal is an animal used for laboratory or research purpose.Good tending is needed to assume that the research is properly carried out.
14 Laboratory animalsWithout research involving animals, scientists would not have a base of information.
15 Animal SpeciesMost animals are subjects of study at one time or another.Most common species used in research laboratories are mice, rats, and hamsters.
16 Animal SpeciesA primate is an animal with thumb and forefinger opposition.A non human primate is similar to humans but is not a human.
17 Animal ReproductionReproduction is a process by which offspring are produced.Sexual Reproduction is the union of a sperm and egg to ultimately produce a new individual.
18 Animal ReproductionThe union of the sperm and egg is called fertilization.Semen- the fluid produced by the male reproductive organs, contains sperm.
19 Animal ReproductionCopulation- is the sexual uniting of animals so the male can ejaculate semen near the eggs in the reproductive tract of the female.
20 Reproductive Development Puberty-is the time at which an animal is capable of reproduction.Fertilization- union of the sperm and egg results in the formation of a zygote
21 Reproductive Development Gestation- is the period of pregnancy in animals.Parturition- is the birthing process.Lactation- is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands.
22 Reproductive Development Dry time is a time when mammals are not lactating.
23 The Estrous CycleEstrous is a time when a female is fertile and receptive to a male.The estrous cycle is the time between the estrous.
24 The Estrous CycleThe three periods in the estrous cycle that follow estrous are metestrus, diestrus, and proestrus.
25 Artificial Insemination Artificial insemination is the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female. It is used with sheep, beef cattle, turkeys, and swine.Generally female estrous cycles are regulated with hormone injections.
26 Artificial Insemination Sperm are collected from males by artificially promoting ejaculation.
27 Gender PreselectionGender preselection is choosing the gender of a potential offspring.Gender preselection may be done by sorting sperm.
28 Gender PreselectionThe DNA content of sperm varies slightly based on the gender of the offspring that would result from conception.
29 Embryo TransferEmbryo transfer is the harvesting of fertilized ova from a donor and implanting them into a recipient.The harvested embyros are transferred to a recipient.
30 Embryo TransferNon surgical transfer involves flushing the embryos from the uterine horn.
31 Bovine SomatotropinBovine somatotropin is a natural occurring growth hormone produced in the pituitary gland in the endocrine system.By treating dairy cattle with the hormone, milk production is increased approximately 15%.
32 Bovine SomatotropinSome small dairy producers do not use BST and incorporate that fact in their advertising.
33 Transgenic Animals and Products Pigs- have been used to manufacture human hemoglobin.A xenograft is the practice of grafting an organ or a tissue from one species into another.
34 Transgenic Animals and Products Mice- transgenetic mice have been used in several ways.One of the best known is to produce human antibodies.Cattle- are used to control disease such as mastitis in dairy cows.
35 Methods of creating transgenetic animals Step One- collect embryosWith proper stimulation far more embryos can be obtained than would be the natural result of the reproductive process.
36 Methods of creating transgenetic animals Step Two- Inject embyros.A pro nucleus is the haploid nucleus of the sperm or ovum that have united in fertilization to form a zygote.
37 Methods of creating transgenetic animals Step Three- Zygote CultureThe zygotes are placed in the oviduct of a recipient female.