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The Northern Renaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "The Northern Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Northern Renaissance

2 Renaissance Art in Northern Europe
Should not be considered an appendage to Italian art. But, Italian influence was strong. Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy. The differences between the two cultures: Italy  change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. No. Europe  change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. More princes & kings were patrons of artists.

3 Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art
The continuation of late medieval attention to details. Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”]. Interest in landscapes. More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. Details of domestic interiors. Great skill in portraiture.

4 Flemish Realism

5 Begins in Flanders Moves from there to France, Germany, and Spain

6 Dutch Realism


8 Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441) More courtly and aristocratic work.
Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435.

9 Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434

10 The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami; 1434
Symbol of faithfulness Almost every detail can be interpreted as a symbol. The companion dog is seen as a symbol of faithfulness and love. The fruits on the window ledge probably stand for fertility and our fall from Paradise. Even the discarded shoes are not thought to be incidental, but to signify the sanctity of marriage. In the mirror at the back of the room we see the whole scene reflected from behind, and there, so it seems, we also see the image of the painter and witness. We do not know whether it was the Italian merchant or the northern artist who conceived the idea of making this use of the new kind of painting, which may be compared to the legal use of a photograph, properly endorsed by a witness. But whoever it was that originated this idea, he had certainly been quick to understand the tremendous possibilities which lay in Van Eyck's new way of painting. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term. The mirror is painted with almost miraculous skill. Its carved frame is inset with ten miniature medallions depicting scenes from the life of Christ. Yet more remarkable is the mirror's reflection, which includes van Eyck's own tiny self-portrait, accompanied by another man who may have been the official witness to the ceremony. Symbolic candle The solitary flame burning in bright daylight can be interpreted as the bridal candle, or God's all-seeing eye, or simply as a devotional candle. Another symbol is St Margaret (the patron saint of women in childbirth), whose image is carved on the high chairback.

11 Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini & His Wife (details)

12 van der Weyden’s Deposition (details)

13 France

14 The greatest of German artists. A scholar as well as an artist.
Albrecht Dürer ( ) The greatest of German artists. A scholar as well as an artist. His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I. Also a scientist Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions. Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits.  Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.

15 Dürer – Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500

16 It almost looks like photography
He was an engraver! It almost looks like photography ge%20turf.albrecht%20durer.large.jpg

17 Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse woodcut, 1498

18 He did this just from an oral description.
ge%20turf.albrecht%20durer.large.jpg He did this just from an oral description. He never saw a real Rhinoceros!

19 Everybody’s favorite tattoo?

20 England

21 Hans Holbein, the Younger (1497-1543)
One of the great German artists who did most of his work in England. While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus. Erasmus Writing, 1523  Henry VIII was his patron from 1536. Great portraitist noted for: Objectivity & detachment. Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.

22 Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.

23 Multiple Perspectives

24 The English Were More Interested in Architecture than Painting
Hardwick Hall, designed by Robert Smythson in the 1590s, for the Duchess of Shrewsbury [more medieval in style].

25 Burghley House for William Cecil
The largest & grandest house of the early Elizabethan era.

26 The Low Countries

27 Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569)
One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age. Worked in Antwerp and then moved to Brussels. In touch with a circle of Erasmian humanists. Was deeply concerned with human vice and follies. A master of landscapes; not a portraitist. People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces. They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious. They are types, rather than individuals. Their purpose is to convey a message.

28 Bruegel’s, Tower of Babel, 1563

29 Bruegel’s, The Triumph of Death, 1562

30 New Ideas Humanist New Philosophical Ideas New Political Ideas
New Ideas in Education

31 Renaissance humanists
Idealized the classical world of the ancient Greeks and Romans Focused on man and his intellectual powers Focused on the classical ideal of seeking fulfillment and meaning in daily life Focused on individual worth and potential Focused on many secular (non-religious) aspects of life

32 Erasmus and Christian Humanism
The best known Christian humanist was Desiderius Erasmus. He developed what he called “the philosophy of Christ,” meant to show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than how to achieve salvation. He stressed inward piety, not external observance of rules and rituals.

33 Erasmus and Christian Humanism
To reform the Church, Erasmus wanted to spread the philosophy of Christ, educate people about Christianity, and criticize the abuses of the Church. In his 1509 work The Praise of Folly, he especially criticized the monks. Erasmus did not want to break away from the Church, as later reformers would. Yet people of his day said, “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” What does this mean?

34 Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded.
Thomas More of England Thomas More wrote a famous book called Utopia which was about an “ideal” society Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded. What is it With these British kings And beheading! Author of Utopia… how ironic!

35 The Impact of Printing The Renaissance saw the development of printing in Europe. Johannes Gutenberg of Germany played a crucial role in the process. Gutenberg’s Bible, printed about 1455, was the first European book produced from movable type.

36 Or the Impact of Computers
The Impact of Printing Or the Impact of Computers Most papers and magazines are now digitalized. How has the computer changed communication today and an examination of current invasions of privacy?

37 Objectives List three characteristics of the Renaissance
Explain the three estates of Renaissance society. Explain Renaissance education. Describe artistic contributions of the Renaissance. Describe Christian humanism Describe Luther’s role in the Reformation Describe religious changes in Switzerland, in England, and within the Catholic Church.

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