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Energy and Life 8-1.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy and Life 8-1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy and Life 8-1

2 Energy Energy is the ability to do work
Work can be playing a sport, thinking, or building a protein in a cell All living things obtain and use energy

3 Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Autotrophs: organisms that use light energy from the sun to make food Organisms that do photosynthesis or something similar to obtain energy Examples: plants and algae

4 Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Heterotrophs: organisms that obtain energy from the food they consume Organisms dependent on consuming other organisms for food Examples: animals (us ) and fungi

5 Chemical Energy and ATP
Energy comes in many forms Examples: light, heat, electricity, kinetic energy, potential energy Most energy used in living systems comes from breaking chemical bonds

6 Chemical Energy and ATP
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate): chemical compound living things use to store and release energy

7 Chemical Energy and ATP
ATP structure: Adenine 3 phosphate groups Ribose

8 Chemical Energy and ATP
Energy is stored in the bonds between the phosphate groups Energy is released when the bonds between the second and third phosphate is broken Energy!

9 Chemical Energy and ATP
The resulting molecule is called ADP Adenosine Diphosphate It can have phosphate groups re-attached to be used again Energy!

10 Chemical Energy and ATP
Cells keep a lot of ADP on hand When energy becomes available cells store it by adding a third phosphate to an ADP Making ATP When a cell needs to do work the third phosphate is broken off, releasing energy

11 Using Biochemical Energy
Most energy in a cell is used for active transport Also used for protein synthesis, contracting muscle cells, etc. All life processes

12 Using Biochemical Energy
Cells keep a small supply of ATP on hand Cells regenerate ATP from ADP using energy in food molecules like glucose Done by mitochondria

13 Using Biochemical Energy
A single glucose molecule contains 90 times more energy than an ATP molecule Jobs done in a cell require tiny amounts of energy We couldn’t consume enough food to maintain life if a glucose molecule were consumed for each cellular job

14 Using Biochemical Energy
Making ATPs from glucose is like “making change” Similar to having 100 $1 bills instead of a $100 bill if all you need is a candy bar

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