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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 C H A P T E R Nutrients Involved in Antioxidant Function and In Depth
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of Atoms Be familiar with these terms: Atom: Nucleus: is it + or - ? Electrons: Where are they? What is their charge?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of Atoms
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxidation Molecules are composed of atoms During metabolic reactions, electrons can be transferred From the atoms of one molecule To the atoms of another molecule
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxidation: The Exchange Function
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxidation What is oxidation? What is reduction? What is the exchange reaction?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxidation Stable atoms contain an even number of paired electrons Free radical: an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron Free radicals are highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Oxidation
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of Free Radicals What metabolic processes involve oxidation reactions and can produce free radicals? List at least 5:
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Diseases Linked to Free Radicals List at least 6 diseases linked to free radicals:
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Antioxidants? Antioxidants are: List 5 nutrients identified as antioxidants: PLAY Antioxidants
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Antioxidants What do antioxidants do to prevent oxidation? PLAY Free Radical Formation
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. For the following nutrients identified as antioxidants: Be able to identify the nutrients known as antioxidants Be able to list at least one or two functions of the antioxidant Be able to list at least three sources of food that are notable for containing antioxidants You do not need to memorize the amounts needed
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin E Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin made of Tocotrienolbiologically inactive form Tocopherolbiologically active form Functions of Vitamin E: Primary role is as an antioxidant Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) & LDL Sources of Vitamin E Vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, soybeans Animal and dairy products are poor sources
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that must be consumed in the human diet Functions of Vitamin C Antioxidant Synthesis of collagen Prevents the disease scurvy Enhances the immune system Enhances the absorption of iron
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin C Recommended intake 90 mg/day for men; 75 mg/day for women Smokers need an extra 35 mg/day UL is 2,000 mg/day for adults Sources of vitamin C Fresh fruits and vegetables Heat destroys vitamin C Cooking foods lowers their vitamin C content
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin C What if you consume too much vitamin C? Megadoses (ten times or more of the recommended intake) of vitamin C can cause nausea, diarrhea, nosebleeds, and abdominal cramps Can cause iron toxicity in people with hemochromatosis Can lead to kidney stone formation in people with kidney disease
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin C What if you dont consume enough vitamin C? Scurvy: the most common vitamin C deficiency disease Bleeding gums, loose teeth, weakness Can occur after one month of a diet deficient in vitamin C
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Beta-Carotene Beta-carotene is In the class of chemicals called carotenoids A provitamin: inactive precursors that must be converted to the active form of a vitamin in the body The precursor of retinol
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Beta-Carotene Functions of beta-carotene A weak antioxidant Effective against oxidation in cell membranes and LDLs Carotenoids in general are known to Enhance the immune system Protect skin from damage by UV light Protect eyes from damage
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Beta-Carotene Recommended intake Beta-carotene is not considered an essential nutrient No Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) or RDA has been established Sources of beta-carotene Fruits and vegetables that are red, orange, yellow, and deep green
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Beta-Carotene What if you consume too much beta-carotene? Large quantities do not appear to be toxic Skin may turn yellow or orange at high intakes; harmless and reversible What if you dont consume enough beta-carotene? There are no known deficiency symptoms
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin A Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin Excess vitamin A is stored in the liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, and lungs There are three active forms of vitamin A Retinol Retinal Retinoic acid
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin A Functions of vitamin A Essential to proper vision Antioxidant, protecting LDL cholesterol Cell differentiation: the process by which cells mature and specialize Sperm production and fertilization Bone growth
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin A Recommended intake RDA is 900 g/day for men, 700 g/day for women Sources of vitamin A Animal sources: liver, eggs Plant sources such as the provitamin carotenoids (dark-green, orange, and deep-yellow fruits and vegetables)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamin A What if you consume too much vitamin A? Vitamin A is highly toxic, especially from supplements Birth defects and permanent damage to the liver and eyes can result What if you dont consume enough vitamin A? Night blindness is the most common disease of vitamin A deficiency Irreversible blindness (xerophthalmia)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Selenium Selenium is a trace mineral found in a few amino acids in the body Functions of selenium Antioxidantpart of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme system Production of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Selenium Recommended intake 55 g/day for men and women UL is 400 g/day Sources of selenium Rich sources include organ meats, pork, seafood, nuts, wheat, and rice
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Selenium What if you consume too much selenium? Selenium toxicity (brittle hair, nails, skin rashes) can result from supplements What if you dont consume enough selenium? Keshan disease: a form of heart disease Kashin-Beck disease: a type of arthritis
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. In Depth: Cancer Cancer: a group of related diseases characterized by cells growing out of control Composed of three steps Initiationa cells DNA is mutated Promotionaltered cell repeatedly divides Progressioncells grow out of control
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. In Depth: Cancer
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Role of Antioxidants in Cancer Antioxidants may contribute to reducing the risk of cancer Antioxidants may reduce cancer risk by Enhancing the immune system Inhibiting the growth of cancer cells Preventing oxidation damage to cells
Nutrients Involved in Antioxidant Function and In Depth
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