Presentation on theme: "Introduction – This book introduces to the design and implementation of System Software"— Presentation transcript:
1 SYSTEM SOFTWARE BY B.R.MOHAN ASSOCIATE PROF, CSE SRINIVAS SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, MUKKA
2 Introduction – This book introduces to the design and implementation of System Software System Software – consists of a variety of programs that support the operation of Computer. System Software makes it possible for user to focus on application / other problem to be solved Without needing to know the internal details of m/c working.
3 When u first started a programming course, u may have used different types of System Software. Programs were written in HLL like C++ / Pascal, using a text-editor to create and modify the program.Programs were translated into m/c language using a compiler.Resulting m/c language was loaded into memory and prepared for execution by a loader / linker.Debugger is used to detect errors in the program.
4 Later, programs were written in assembly language using macro instructions in these programs to read and write data / to perform other higher level functions.Assembler may be used that included macroprocessor to translate these programs into m/c language.Translated programs were prepared for execution by the loader / linker and may have been tested using the debugger.
5 All these processes were controlled by user interacting with OS like UNIX / DOS typing commands at a keyboard. WIndows had menu driven commands.In either case, OS took care of m/c details for you irrespective of the fact that your m/c is connected to n/w or shared by other usersTopics - Assemblers, Loaders and Linkers , Macroprocessors, Compilers and operating systems
6 System Software & Machine Architecture Application SoftwareMachine dependentMachine IndependentSupport the operation and use of computing systemPrimarily Concerned with solution of some problem using the computer as a toolFocus is on the computing system, relating to architecture on which they runFocus is on applicationEg – Assemblers, compilers,Operating systemEg – Adobe , Software, MSWord,etc.
7 System software are intended to support the operation and use of computing. Hence they are usually related to architecture of the machine on which they to run.Eg – Assemblers translate mnemonic instructions into machine code; the instruction formats , addressing modes etc. are of direct concern in assembler design.Similarly, compilers must generate m/c language code taking into account h/w characteristics like number & type of registers and m/c instructions available.Operating systems are directly concerned with management of all resources of a computing system. These are some of examples of m/c dependency.
8 Some aspects of ss that dont directly depend upon the type of computing system being supported. Eg – The general design and logic of an assembler is basically same on most computers.Some of code optimization techniques used by compilers are independent of target m/c.Process of linking together independently assembled subprograms that dont depend upon computer being used.
9 Simplified Instructional Computer (SIC) – describe SIC m/c is designed to illustrates common h/w features and concepts.SIC comes in 2 versionsStandard modelXE version (XE – Extra equipment / Extra expensive)2 versions are designed to be upward compatibleupward compatible – object program for standard SIC m/c will also execute properly on SIC/XE system.
10 SIC M/C ArchitectureMemory – 8 bit bytes. 3 consecutive bytes – word(24 bits). byte oriented addresses Words are addressed by the location of their lowest numberedbyte. SIC Memory size – 215 bytes
11 Registers – 5 registers of special use - each register is of 24 bits in length MnemonicNumberSpecial useAAccumulator – used for alu operationsX1Index reg. – for addressingL2Linkage reg. – Jsub instruction stores ret. Address in this registerPC8Prg. Ctr – contains address of next instruction to be fetched for executionSW9Status reg. – contains a variety of info. Including condition code (CC)
12 Data FormatsIntegers are stored as 24 bit binary numbers2’s complement representation is used for negative valuesCharacters are stored using their 8-bit ascii codes
13 X bit indicate indexed addressing mode Opcode x address Instruction Formats – All m/c instructions on standard version of SIC have 24 bit formatX bit indicate indexed addressing modeOpcode x address1581
14 Addressing modes - 2 addressing modes are available with setting X bit in instruction. Table describes how target address is calculated given in the instruction. (x) – indicate contents of registerModeIndicationTarget address calculationDirectX=0TA=addressIndexedX=1TA=address + (X)
15 Direct Addressing Mode – Eg – LDA TEN Effective address (EA) = 1000Content of address 1000 is loaded intoaccumulator1opcodexTen
16 Indexed Addressing mode – Eg – STCH BUFFER , X Effective Address (EA) = [X] = content of IR reg.545OPCODEXBUFFER
17 2 are provided for subroutine linkage. Instruction Set – sic give basic set of instructions to do simple tasks like loading and storing registers (LDA, LDX, STA, STX, etc.), integer arithmetic operations (ADD, SUB, MUL , DIV) involving accumulator & word in memory , with result left in memoryCOMP compares the value in reg. A with word in memory, setting a CC to indicate result (<, =, or >).Conditional jump instructions (JLT, JEQ, JGT) can test the setting of CC and jump accordingly.2 are provided for subroutine linkage.JSUB jumps to Subroutine, placing return address in L;RSUB returns by jumping to address contained in register L
18 I/O – On Standard SIC , i/o are performed by transferring 1 byte at a time to / from rightmost 8 bits of register AEach device is assigned an 8 bit code.3 instructions, each of which specifies the device code as operand.TD – test device instruction tests whether addressed device is ready to send / receive a byte of data.Condition Code is sets to indicate result of this test
19 A setting of < means device is ready to send to / receive from and = means device is not ready. A program needing to transfer data must wait until device is ready, then execute (RD) a readdata and (WD) writedata. This sequence is repeated for each byte of data to be read / written.
20 SIC / XE architectureMemory of structure SIC / XE is same as described for SIC.Maximum memory available on SIC / XE system – 220 = 1 MBThis increase leads to change in addressing modes.Additional registers in SIC / XE
21 Base register – used for addressing MnemonicNumberSpecial UseB3Base register – used for addressingS4General Working Registers – no special registersT5F6Floating point Accumulator(48 bits)
22 Data Formats – SIC / XE provides the same data formats as standard version. There is a floating point data type with following format :S exponent fraction11136Fraction is a value from 0 to 1 i.e. assumed binary point is immediately before higher bit. For normalized floating point numbers , the higher order bit of fraction must be 1. Exponent is interpreted as unsigned binary number between 0 and If exponent has value e, and fraction has value e and the fraction has value f, the absolute value of number is represented asf*2(e-1024)Sign of floating point number is indicated by value of S(0 = +ve , 1 = -ve)
23 Eg – RSUB (Return to subroutine) Format 1 (1 byte) –8opcodeEg – RSUB (Return to subroutine)Format 2 (2 bytes) –Eg – COMPR A,S (compare [A] & S)4Copcoder r2484AS8-bit4-bit4-bit
24 Eg – +JSUB RDREC ( jump to address , 1036) Format 3 (3 bytes) –Eg – LDA #3 ( Load 3 to A)Format 4 (4 bytes) –Eg – +JSUB RDREC ( jump to address , 1036)111111opcoden i x b p edisplacement6 bit12 bitn i x b p e6 bit12 bitopcoden i x b p eaddress20 bit6 bit4136
25 Target address calculation Addressing Modes – 2 relative addressing modes are used for instructions assembled using Format 3ModeIndicationTarget address calculationBase relativeB=1, p=0T.A = (B) + disp(0 << disp << 4095)Program-counter relativeB=0, p=1T.A = (PC) + disp(-2048 << disp << 2047)For base-relative addressing , displacement field disp in format 3 instruction is interpreted as a 12-bit unsigned integer.
26 1056 STX LENGTH1206EA = LENGTH = 0033 EA = disp+[B] [B]=0033 Disp=0 The  i.e. content of address 0033 is loaded to index register x. For PC relative addressing , this field is interpreted as a 12 bit signed integer, with negative values represented in 2’s complement notation STL RETADR RETADR =0330 PC = 0003(address of next instruction) Disp =002D Linkage register contains the contents of RETADR 00301722DObject code
27 ea=retadr = 30 Ea= disp+pc Ea = 2d+0003 Linkage register contain [retadr] = 0030If b & p = 0 disp field in format 3 is taken to be target address