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THE WAR OF 1812.

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Presentation on theme: "THE WAR OF 1812."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE WAR OF 1812

2 1. Causes of the War Free seas and trade
neither Britain or France respected neutral rights majority of Americans sympathized with France against Britain British violations of neutral rights more blatant - impressments


4 b. Frontier Pressures Americans more ambitious for more land Canada and Florida (England, Spain and Native Americans stood in the way. Gen. William Henry Harrison (Gov. of Indiana Territory) destroyed the Native American Headquarters (Battle of Tippecanoe) and ended Indian Confederacy British blamed US for conflict




8 c. War Hawks Congressional elections of 1810 brought new group of young Republicans Came from frontier states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio) Eager to go to war Led by Henry Clay (Kentucky), John C. Calhoun (S. Carolina)

9 Henry Clay John C. Calhoun

10 2. A Divided Nation Election of 1812
Division of opinion seen in presidential election Madison defeated De Witt Clinton of New York


12 b. Opposition to the War Outspoken criticism of the war – N. England merchants, Federalist politicians and “Old” Republicans

13 3. Military Defeats and Naval Victories
Madison based hope of victory on two things: 1. Napoleon's continued success in Europe 2. US land campaign against Canada

14 Invasion of Canada Army poorly equipped, but initiated action Launched 3 prong invasion of Canada Easily repulsed by British defenders


16 b. Naval Battles Victories attributed to superior shipbuilding USS Constitution – “Old Ironsides” raised morale by defeating and sinking a British ship American privateers successful in capturing British merchant ships


18 b. Naval battles cont. British were successful in blockading the US coast – crippled trading and fishing Victories at Lake Erie, the Thames River (near Detroit), and Lake Champlain ended the British campaign in NY & New England

19 b. Naval battles cont. Prepared the way for Gen. Harrison’s military victory at battle of Thames River (near Detroit) – which killed Tecumseh 1814, Thomas Macdonough defeated British fleet on Lake Champlain Result: British forced to retreat and abandon plan to invade New York and New England


21 Lake Champlain

22 c. Chesapeake Campaign 1814, defeat of Napoleon enabled British to increase forces British marched through DC – set fire to the White House, Capitol, and other buildings Attempted to capture Ft. McHenry (Baltimore) Origins of the Star Spangled Banner






28 d. Southern Campaign Battle of Horseshoe Bend – Andrew Jackson – ended power of Creek Nation New Orleans – Andrew Jackson – defeated the British (fought 6 weeks after the signing of the peace treaty




32 4. The Treaty of Ghent Halt to the fighting
Return of all conquered territory Recognition of prewar boundary between Canada and the US


34 5. Hartford Convention Before end of the war – New England came close to seceding from the Union Opposed the war Special convention held at Hartford, CT


36 6. War’s Legacy US gained respect of other nations
US accepted Canada as neighbor Federalist party came to an end as a national force Nullification talk and secession in New England set a precedent used by the South

37 e. Native Americans in the West were forced to give up large areas of land
f. US factories were built – America took big step toward industrial self-sufficiency g. War heroes – Jackson and Harrison –political leaders h. Feeling of nationalism

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