Presentation on theme: "Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents Douglas Fisher www"— Presentation transcript:
1 Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents Douglas Fisher www Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents Douglas Fisher
2 Three Big Ideas Internalize an instructional framework. Develop a level of instructional consistency.Examine student work, with colleagues, on a regular basis.
3 Internalize an Instructional Framework Do I know why I’m doing what I’m doing, or am I a “strategy junkie”?Thanks to P. David Pearson and Robert Pritchard
4 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Structure for Instruction that Works(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
5 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it” Focus Lesson “You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITY(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
6 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “You do it alone” IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITY(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
7 And in some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITY(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
8 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Structure for Instruction that Works(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
9 Aimee Chen: First year geometry teacher How does she use “literacy” in her instruction?How does the classroom structure facilitate understanding?How might she improve her instruction?
10 Establishing Purpose Why? Focuses attention Alerts learner to key ideasPrevents “birdwalking” and maximizes learning timeCan be used in formative assessmentTypesContent goal (based on the standards)Language goal (vocabulary, language structure, and language function)Social goal (classroom needs or school priorities)
11 Samples Language Arts Math C: Describe how a character changes in a story.L: Use sensory detail to give readers a clear image of the character and the changes.MathC: Determine reasonableness of a solution to a mathematical problem.L: Use mathematical terms to explain why an answer is reasonable.
12 SamplesScienceC: Identify the steps in the life cycle of a frog.L: Use signal words to describe the life cycle of a frog.Social StudiesC: Identify the causes of the Revolutionary War.L: Explain the meaning of “taxation without representation” to a peer and summarize the meaning in writing.
13 Three Types of Language Purposes Vocabulary: (specialized, technical)Structure: (the way the vocabulary is used in sentences to express ideas)Function: (the intended use of those ideas)These language purposes build upon one another over a series of lessons.
14 Vocabulary Specialized Technical Words whose meaning changes depending on the context (problem, simplify, value)Multiple meaning words (run, place)These can be “brick” or “mortar” wordsTechnicalWords that represent one concept only (denominator, photosynthesis)These are the “bricks” of language
15 Language StructureGrammar/syntax: rules for language use (e.g., plurals, noun/verb agreement)Signal words: guideposts to support understanding of listener/reader (e.g., If/then, first, last, compared to)Frames and templates: scaffolds for apprentice language users (“On the one hand, ________. But on the other hand, _______.”)
16 Language FunctionHalliday identified 7 language functions (Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, imaginative, heuristic, representational)These are translated into classroom interactions (express an opinion, summarize, persuade, question, entertain, inform, sequence, disagree, debate, evaluate, justify)
17 CO: Identify the phases of the moon. The “big a-ha”The same content objective can have many different language purposes!CO: Identify the phases of the moon.LP #1: Name the phases of the moon. (vocabulary)LP #2: Use sequence words (first, next, last) to describe the phases of the moon. (structure)LP #3: Explain how the moon, earth, and sun move through the phases. (function)
18 Modeling Why? Humans mimic or imitate Students need examples of the type of thinking requiredFacilitates the use of academic language
20 Word Solving Context clues Word parts (prefix, suffix, root, base, cognates)Resources (others, Internet, dictionary)
21 Using Text Structure Informational Texts Narrative Texts Problem/Solution, Compare/Contrast, Sequence, Cause/Effect, DescriptionNarrative TextsStory grammar (plot, setting, character)DialogueLiterary devices
22 Using Text Features Headings Captions Illustrations Charts Graphs Bold wordsTable of contentsGlossaryIndexTablesMargin notesItalicized words
23 What Happened to Phineas? Attend the tale of Phineas Gage. Honest, well liked by friends and fellow workers on the Rutland and Burlington Railroads, Gage was a young man of exemplary character and promise until one day in September While tamping down the blasting powder for a dynamite charge, Gage inadvertently sparked an explosion. The inch thick tamping rod rocketed through his cheek, obliterating his left eye, on its way through his brain and out the top of his skull.Discover Magazine
24 The rod landed several yards away, and Gage fell back in a convulsive heap. Yet a moment later he stood up and spoke. His fellow workers watched, aghast, then drove him by oxcart to a hotel where a local doctor, one John Harlow, dressed his wounds. As Harlow stuck his index fingers in the holes in Gage’s face and head until their tips met, the young man inquired when he would be able to return to work.Discover Magazine
25 Within two months the physical organism that was Phineas Gage had completely recovered - he could walk, speak, and demonstrate normal awareness of his surroundings. But the character of the man did not survive the tamping rod’s journey through his brain. In place of the diligent, dependable worker stood a foul-mouthed and ill-mannered liar given to extravagant schemes that were never followed through. “Gage,” said his friends, “was no longer Gage.”Discover Magazine
26 Questions How did Phineas survive this penetrating brain injury? For how much longer did he live?
27 Develop a Level of Instructional Consistency Are all teachers teachers of reading?Are schools building habits that are transportable and transparent?As students develop habits, are discipline-specific practices taught?
28 “7 Literacy Strategies that Work” Anticipatory activities (building background)Read alouds / shared readingVocabulary developmentGraphic organizersNote-takingWriting to learnReciprocal Teaching
30 Read Aloud/Shared Reading Good selectionsConnected to the classAccess to text?“Every day, every class”Model thinking
31 Types of Vocabulary General vocabulary Specialized vocabulary Words used in everyday language, with agreed upon meanings across contexts (e.g., pesky, bothersome)Specialized vocabularyMultiple meanings in different content areas (e.g., loom, in, expression)Technical vocabularySpecific to a field of study (e.g., concerto, meiosis)Vacca & Vacca, 1999
32 Catherine the Great, a minor aristocrat from Germany, became Empress of Russia when her husband Peter, the grandson of Peter the Great, was killed.
33 Vocabulary Vocabulary Role Play Language Charts Multiple Meaning Word StudyWord Sorts and Making WordsVocabulary Journals
35 Notetaking and Notemaking Cornell notesText structuresMain ideas and detailsAssessment of notes
36 Writing to Learn Prompt or phrase Yesterday’s news Crystal ball Best thing I learnedRAFT
37 Reciprocal Teaching Students work in groups Summarize, question, clarify, predictZinger questions
38 It sounds so easy, what gets in the way? Hard Books“Students must read books at their grade level”Whole Class Texts“Read chapter 4 tonight”Choice?
39 AnxietyTask DifficultyFlowBoredomApathyCompetence or Skill
40 It sounds so easy, what gets in the way? Interventions for Struggling Readers“I’m working on fluency”
41 I’ll go back to schooland learn moreaboutthe brain!
42 400+ Page text“Somites are blocks of dorsal mesodermal cells adjacent to the notochord during vertebrate organogensis.”“Improved vascular definition in radiographs of the arterial phase or of the venous phase can be procured by a process of subtraction whereby positive and negative images of the overlying skull are superimposed on one another.”
48 To date, over 100 YouTube videos! PBS (The Secret Life of the Brain) Read “Non-Traditional” TextsTo date, over 100 YouTube videos!PBS (The Secret Life of the Brain)Internet quiz sites about neuroanatomyTalking with peers and others interested in the brain
50 Besides Some Neuroanatomy, What Have I Learned?You can’t learn from books you can’t read (but you can learn)Reading widely builds background and vocabularyInteracting with others keeps me motivated and clarifies information and extends understandingI have choices and rely on strategies
51 Examine Student Work, With Colleagues, on a Regular Basis Teacher-created, common formative assessments are the goalTeachers need time to develop, administer, and discuss the assessmentsTests are a genre
53 Identify materials and teach Select key standardswith pacing guideIdentify materials and teachCreate and administercommon assessmentConsensus score andcomplete item analysisReteachAnalyze results incourse alike groupsRevise pacing guideRevise assessmentIntervention groups
54 Creating Literacy-Rich Schools We can do this.To do this, we must increase precision teaching (Breakthrough - Fullan, Hill, & Crevola, 2006).Precision requires access to assessment information, consistent instructional routines, and an understanding of the role language plays in learning.
55 Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents Douglas Fisher www Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents Douglas Fisher