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VI C. National and International Migration [See text, Chapter 7, pp

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1 VI C. National and International Migration [See text, Chapter 7, pp
VI C. National and International Migration [See text, Chapter 7, pp and class notes for International Migration.] ECON March

2 Agenda National Migration International Migration
Why do People Migrate People’s Motivations Underlying Forces The Migratory Process Varieties of migration The “Harris-Todaro Model” of Migration Is Internal Migration Desirable? Policy Implications International Migration

3 A. Why do People Migrate People’s Motivations :
Push factors: real income, security, opportunity: Environmental factors (drought, land degradation, salinization Population pressures on the land (excessive land fragmentation; land ownership patterns) Political instability and civil conflict (e.g. Colombia) Non-economic Factors: To break the bonds of traditional rural society Pull factors: Urban employment opportunities Income possibilities Urban amenities; water electricity modern housing s

4 A. Why do People Migrate Underlying Forces Structural Change
Technological Change All factors affecting agriculture and rural development relative to urban development All factors affecting the location of economic activity


6 B. The Migratory Process
Who Migrates? Varieties of Migration Rural to urban Rural to rural Urban to urban Urban to rural? Migratory Commuting

7 Components of Migration in Selected Countries

8 C. The “Harris-Todaro Model” of Migration
Intuitive version or verbal version; Migration is a rational decision The decision depends on expected rather than actual wage differentials The probability of obtaining a city job is inversely related to the urban unemployment rate High rates of migration are outcomes of rural urban imbalances Graphical version (on blackboard in class)

9 Figure 7.12 The Harris-Todaro Migration Model [See class notes and text pp. 340-342 for explanation]

10 Economic Implications of Migration
Accommodating structural change in an economy Permitting shifts from low to higher productivity economic activities Shifting of “surplus labour” Relief of rural population pressures Migrants are presumably better off and usually or else they would return if they were not Socioeconomic costs on urban areas

11 D. Is Rural to Urban Migration Desirable?
From the perspective of the migrants? B. From a societal perspective?

12 D. Is Rural to Urban Migration Desirable?
B. From a societal perspective? The Positives Surplus labour leaves the land; Rural population pressures are relieved; Structural change in the economy is made possible; Higher productivity made possible in urban activities; Higher incomes for migrants

13 D. Is Rural to Urban Migration Desirable?
B. From a societal perspective? The Negatives: Unemployment and underemployment in urban areas Inundation of people into informal sector activities Overcrowding & congestion; Shanty-towns and inadequate housing; Crime and social dysfunction? Overburdened infrastructure Increased taxes to accommodate new-comers Higher costs of infrastructure as cities expand further Environmental costs

14 D. Is Internal Migration Desirable? Cont’d:
Rural-to-urban migration was viewed positively until recently The current view is that this migration is greater or more rapid than the urban areas’ abilities to Create jobs Provide social services Therefore, slow down the migratory process in those countries where it is very rapid. HOW?

15 E. Policy Implications Slow down rural-urban migration. HOW?
Create a better urban-rural balance; Reduce “Urban Bias” Eliminate all “biases” favouring large cities at the expense of small towns, rural areas and regions; Eliminate factor price distortions that favour “capital” industry and urban areas; Emphasize rural infrastructure Promote rural and regional development Expand small-scale, labor intensive industries in rural areas small towns and secondary cities; Broaden the economic base of rural areas; Programs of integrated rural development should be encouraged to generate rural jobs and higher incomes; Decentralize authority to cities, towns and neighborhoods;

16 F. Policy Implications Slow down rural-urban migration. HOW? Cont’d
Choose appropriate labor-intensive technologies of production where possible; Modify carefully the linkage between education and employment; Reduce population growth; Urban job creation is insufficient for reducing urban unemployment; Improve rural incomes and jobs as well Urban wage subsidies can be counterproductive, merely inducing more migration and unemployment Avoid “Induced Migration” by trying to create urban jobs while neglecting rural areas;

17 International Migration: [Not in text; see class notes]

18 International Migration: [Not in text; see class notes]
I. Varieties of International Migrants Workers or Economic Migrants Family Reunification Refugee Movements Temporary or Circulatory Migration “Study-Abroad” Migration International Adoptions Illegal and Legal Migration Trafficking in People “Reverse Migration”

19 Some central facts re international migration:
214 million estimated international migrants, 3.1 per cent of the global population.2 In 2008, remittance flows are estimated at USD 444 billion worldwide, USD 338 billion of which went to developing countries. 5 20 to 30 million unauthorized migrants worldwide, comprising around 10 to 15 per cent of the world's immigrant stock. 6 26 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in at least 52 countries as a result of conflict. 7 In 2010, the global number of refugees reached an estimated 16 million See International Organization for Migration:

20 II. Estimates of International Migrants by Region
Major Area Number of International Migrants (Millions) Percent of Total, 2005 Percent Female 2005 Africa Asia L. Am. Northern America Europe Oceana 9% 28 3 23 34 47.4 44.7 50.3 50.4 53.4 51.3 World 100 49.6 Source: United Nations, Trends in Total Migration Stock, the 2005 Revision





25 Forces Generating International Migration

26 Who Wins, Who Loses, How and Why?
Gains and Losses; Who Wins, Who Loses, How and Why? The Migrants The Receiving Country The Home or Sending Country Brain Drain and Brain Gain Should Winners Compensate Losers?


28 Relevant Policies for Countries of Origin
VIII Policy Possibilities for Increasing the Global and Origin-Country Benefits Can Emigres and International Diasporas become Pro-Developmental for their Countries of Origin? Remittances; Diaspora Development Initiatives? Return Migration with New Skills, Financial Resources? Would Global “Economic Convergence” Change the Situation?

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