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Bioluminescence Hailey Shepherd Devan Stapley With Contributions from-

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1 Bioluminescence Hailey Shepherd Devan Stapley With Contributions from-
Edith Widder – Leading Bioluminescence Researcher Steven Haddock- Journal of Marine Science Researcher


3 Just like your car… -Built in headlight that can roll back into head to turn off, much like a car. (Off and on, for hiding from predators and attract prey and mates.) 3 headlights on each side of it’s head. One is blue, and that’s the color of most bioluminescence, because it travels the farthest. But this fish is special because it also has two red lights, so it can see a different spectrum of light colors. Most fish cannot see this light, others can. (can be used like a sniper scope)




7 Functions This deep sea shrimp, Acanthephyra purpurea, spews bioluminescence to blind or distract a predator. Image courtesy of Edith Widder/HBOI. This is just one of the many functions of bioluminescence.

8 Spewing---- Jelly fish, squid, shrimp and other fish

9 Functions Counterillumination
Misdirection: smoke screen/glowing sparks Counterillumination Distractive body parts/sacrificial tag (octopus leg) Burglar alarm Warning coloration Lure prey (nemo) Illuminate prey/deep sea sight (red light fish) Mate attraction/recognition Only source of survival… In marine communities, bioluminescence has a powerful influence. Bioluminescence is one of the most effective ways of communicating in the ocean. A bioluminescent flash can be seen ten to hundreds of meters away. This can be much more effective than a chemical signal which slowly diffuses or an acoustic signal which lacks directional control. Bioluminescence has also been thought to be used for sexual dimorphism and mating Herring (2000, 2007). Also, certain light patterns suggest interspecific communication (Morin et al. 1975), and that the light can be used as a private conversation channel. The deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron may illuminate single body parts (Bush et al. 2009), which then continue to move and flash to draw away the attention of predators. Also, when an organism looses a body part in an attack, these lost tissues can continue to glow for hours afterward (Robison 1992, Herring & Widder 2004), even within the predator's stomach which can attract predators. T


11 This jar might just look like glowing goo, but further understanding the chemistry of these organisms can actually expand infinite uses of this natural light. For example, depending on the concentration of these glowing organisms, a ship's wake may be visible for up to 6 nautical miles. In 1918, it was bioluminescence that gave away the position of the last German U-boat sunk during World War I. This was a result of the milky sea. This is a picture of a milky sea. Milky seas are unusual phenomena which have been noticed by mariners for centuries, but which remain unexplained by scientists. These events are when the surface of the ocean, often from horizon to horizon, glows with a continuous uniform milky light. Although the origins of this light are not well investigated, the most plausible explanation is that it is caused by blooms of bioluminescent bacteria.

12 Important Uses Glowing Trees-
WW1 German Uboat revealved from disturbing bioluminescent plankton “One of a number of wartime reports concerning bioluminescence and submarine tracking comes from this region. In November the last German U-boat (U-34) to be destroyed during World War I was easily tracked because the water was so "phosphorescent" at the time that the submarine could be seen moving under the water "glowing" and outlined by "sea fire."

13 Uses for Humanity- Renewable Energy Source Warfare “weapons”
Marking Boats Japanese troops painting fingertips in WWII Medical Uses Antibacterial agents Cancer Fighting drugs Testing for the presence of life of Mars Detecting pollutants in our water Japanese troops- painting fingertips in WWII to see maps and compasses at night Cancer Fighting drugs- Inserted Luciferin into cancer cells, which caused them to glow, and the cells produced enough light to trigger their own death. Testing for the presence of life of Mars- if we are able to identify bioluminescent proteins from a spacecraft, then it would give us evidence of living organisms in the soils or oceans of other planets.

14 In Conclusion: The field of research in Chemical Bioluminescence is still widely unknown. Bioluminescence has the potential to be the next renewable energy resource, and an environmentally friendly warfare weapon. Molecules of bioluminescence have proved significantly important in the medical and chemistry fields. (2008 Nobel peace prize) -Mechanisms of Luciferin synthesis (all-most entirely unknown) Specific chemical pathways Various suggested pathways – unproven Undiscovered Luciferins and other molecules Nobel peace prize- Osamu Shimomura -Isolated green florescent protein from bioluminescent jelly fish -Equated to the invention of the microscope in terms of impact on cell biology, genetic engineering, and chemistry advancement.

15 References Bush SL, Robison BH, Caldwell RL Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural, and bioluminescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young Biol. Bull. 216:7–22 Haddock, Steven H.D., Mark A. Moline, and James F. Case. "Bioluminescence in the Sea." Annual Review of Marine Science 2 (2010): Print. Herring PJ Species abundance, sexual encounter, and bioluminescent signalling in the deep sea. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 355:1273–76 Herring PJ, Widder EA Bioluminescence of deep-sea coronate medusae (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Mar. Biol. 146:39–51 Jabr, Ferris. "Gleaning the Gleam: A Deep-Sea Webcam Sheds Light on Bioluminescent Ocean Life." Scientific American (2010). Print. Kanakubo A, Isobe M Isolation of brominated quinones showing chemiluminescence activity from luminous acorn worm, Ptychodera flava. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 13:2741–47 Morin JG, Harrington A, Nealson K, Krieger N, Baldwin TO, Hastings JW Light for all reasons: Versatility in the behavioral repertoire of the flashlight fish. Science 190:74–76 Tsuji FI, Barnes AT, Case JF Bioluminescence in the marine teleost, Porichthys notatus, and its induction in a non-luminous form by Cypridina (Ostracod) luciferin. Nature 237:515–16 Widder EA Lighting the deep. The New Sci. 196:24–25

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