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Nephrologic Emergencies

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Presentation on theme: "Nephrologic Emergencies"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nephrologic Emergencies

2 Case 1 81 y/o WF with poor responsiveness Family couldn’t wake her up
Saw FP day before and felt OK Squad found her unresponsive Monitor in squad showed HR 30 Transcutaneous pacing initiated

3 Case 1 In ER, HR 20 without pacer Atropine given without improvement
EKG with 3rd degree AV Block Transvenous pacer placed Labs sent, foley placed Respiratory failure and intubated


5 Case 1- Past Medical History
CKD with Cr 1.9 HTN Afib Cirrhosis- cause unknown Paracentesis this week for ascites

6 Case 1- Meds Cardizem CD 300mg QD Lasix 40mg QD Digoxin 0.125mg QD
Enulose 15cc QD Remeron 30mg QD Aldactone 100mg QD* Neutraphos K 1 packet TID*

7 Case 1 BP dropped and dopamine initiated Labs:
ABG 7.08/23/273/6.9 on vent CK 56, troponin 0.11 Na 131 K 8.3 Cl 100 CO2 9 AG 22 BUN 34 Cr 4.7 Dig 2.3 Phos Mag 2.4

8 Case 1 Bicarb, D50, Insulin Albuterol 4 puffs Kayexalate 30 gm
Digibind 1 vial Repeat K and ABG Nephrology contacted

9 Case 1 Family gave consent for hemodialysis
Catheter placed, transferred to ICU Hemodialysis on 0 K bath x1 hr then 2 K During dialysis rhythm became Afib in 90’s TV Pacer turned off

10 Case 1 Admission day Next morning 0530 K 8.3 0730 K 7.5 1200 K 4.5

11 Case 1 Summary Renal function improved to Cr1.9 with hydration
DC’d off neutraphos and aldactone Synthroid started for TSH 50.09 Outpt followup for cirrhosis

12 Case 2 65 y/o WF found unresponsive
Had been depressed due to poor health History of alcoholism requiring admissions Various bottles of alcohol at scene per squad

13 Case 2 In ER completely unresponsive Vitals stable but no gag
Intubated for airway protection Physical exam unremarkable except Thin, mildly malnourished open ulcers on legs Lungs scattered rhonci

14 Case 2 Past Medical History per niece Diabetes mellitus
Chronic leg ulcers HTN Alcoholism Tobacco abuse Depression

15 Case 2- Meds Glucotrol XL 10 mg QD Altace 5mg QD Zoloft 50mg QD
Recently finished antibiotic for leg ulcers Home remedy- rubbing alcohol for legs

16 Case 2- Labs ABG 7.29/32/365/17 Na 130 K 3.9 Cl 108 CO2 14
Glu 78 BUN 31 Cr 1.1 AG 8 Acetone neg Lactic acid 1.3

17 Case 2 DOA neg, ASA neg EtOH 0.86

18 Case 2 Why doesn’t this make sense?
Metabolic (and respiratory) acidosis Nongapped with neg acetone, neg lactate Ethanol should give a gapped acidosis

19 Case 2 Calculated serum osmolality 275 2Na + Glu/18 + BUN/2.8
Measured serum osmolality 353 Osmolal gap 78 Normal osmolal gap <10

20 Case 2- Increased Osmolal Gap
Ethanol Ethylene glycol Methanol Isopropyl alcohol All should have an increased anion gap also …except isopropyl

21 Case 2 Review of history- Pt was found with various bottles of alcohol
Mostly vodka, some isopropyl When sober, would wipe legs ulcers with isopropyl When drunk, apparently would drink it

22 Case 2 Pt emergently dialyzed x 8 hrs
Isopropyl, methanol, ethylene glycol levels “sent out”

23 Case 2- Summary Pt began to wake up at end of dialysis
Extubated the following day No long term neurologic adverse effects Renal function remained stable Psych and crisis evaluations

24 Case #3 68 y/o AAM sent in from chronic hemodialysis unit where staff noticed a diffuse red rash/discoloration to skin of chest and face Hypertension uncharacteristic for this patient did not respond to clonidine 0.2 mg) Decreased mental staus

25 Case #3 PMH – ESRD, DM2, PVD, HTN, CAD
PSH – b/l BKA, CABG, PTCA (8 months prior), Left UE A/V fistula, Penile implant All – NKDA Soc – married, no tobacco/EtoH, independent, high functioning

26 Case #3 Meds Phoslo 667 mg I TID meals Nephrocaps QD evening meal
Accupril 10mg QD Atenolol 12.5 mg BID ECASA QD Glucotrol XL 2.5 mg qd Tylenol, Lomotil PRN Viagra 50 mg PRN

27 Case #3 Exam T-98, P-95, R-22, 170/63 Skin – diffuse redness to face, chest, hands (palmar) no macules, papules, ecchymosis, discrete lesions HEENT – lips swollen, poss periorbital edema H – RRR, L – clear Abd – soft, nontender, no hepatospleenomegaly, no rebound Ext – L a/v fistula + thrill/bruit

28 Case #3 ABG 7.43/43/54/29/88% on Room air CBC WBC – 10.4 RBC – 1.21
Hgb – 7.0 HCT – 11.0 MCV – 86 PLT – 69,000 Sample is grossly hemolyzed

29 Case #3 Na-139, K-3.8, Cl-102, HCO3-29 BUN-38, Cr-6.0 Glu 424
CPK-545, CK-MB-22.8 (4%) Troponin I 2.7

30 Case #3 Differential for Hemolysis Liver disease Hypersplenism
Infection (Clostridial sepsis, babesiosis, malaria, bartonella, E. coli O157) Microangiopathies (TTP/HUS, Valvular prosthesis) Autoimmune (warm/cold Ab) Infusions – IVIg, Rhogam, Hypotonic saline, blood transfusion Oxidant agents – dapsone, nitrites, snake bites Hemoglobinopathies, Enzyme deficiencies, membrane deficiencies

31 Case #3 More lab results Albumin – 3.1
Total bilirubin – 13.9, indirect – 12.6 Retic % 3.2 AST-238, ALP-43, ALT-37, GGT<8 LDH – 4591 Haptoglobin – 36 (49-297) Myoglobin

32 Case #3 Intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, altered mental status in a renal failure patient Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura Pt received therapuetic plasmapheresis (TPE) alternating with hemodialysis. Stabilized in 4-5 days. Suffered NQWMI day one

33 Case #4 62 y/o CM presents with confusion and altered mental status
Family states he was normal yesterday but has been unable to “clear the cobwebs” today. Seems as though he is getting progressively more sleepy as the day goes on. PMH – DM2 diet controlled, HTN PSH – Appy, L femur fx with internal fix All - NKDA

34 Case #4 Soc – retired school teacher, married, independent, Tobbaco 60 pack-years, EtoH-social (daily) Meds Accuretic 10/12.5 md QD ASA QD

35 Case #4 Exam T-98.6 P-88 R /80 80kg Neuro – sleepy, follows simple commands, poor historian, communications are incoherent. Pupils are 4 mm, equal and reactive. Neck supple. Reflexes brachial/patellar normal. H-RRR, no JVD, L-slight expiratory wheeze left Abd – soft nontender no HSM Ext – no edema

36 Case #4 CT Head – normal ABG 7.41/40/98/25/99% on room air
Na-108, K-3.2, CL-76, HCO3-23, BUN – 23, Cr-0.8 Glu-96 CXR – left upper lobe peripheral density Sosm – 226, Uosm – 560 mosm/kg

37 Case #4 Hyponatremia Treatment
Hypo-osmolar, Euvolemic, but this patient has neurologic manifestations Treatment Restoration of serum sodium, goal 120Meq/L Na deficit: ( Meq/L)(0.6)(80kg) =576 Meq of sodium needed to correct One liter of 3% NaCl has 513 Meq Na Correct 0.5 Meq/L each hour (12 Meq/L over 24 hours) Hang one liter NaCl 3% at 40 cc/hr through central line. Monitor Na q2 hours, neuro checks Investigate underlying cause

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