2 4-5th C- Invasions and fall of Rome 6-7th C- constant warfare Comparative TimelineComparative TimelineEUROPEEarly Middle Ages:4-5th C- Invasions and fall of Rome6-7th C- constant warfare751- Pepin crowned king of Franks;768- Charlemagne inherits Frank kingdom804- Saxons convert to Christianity;814: Charlemagne dies843- Treaty of Verdun divides Frankish kingdom founds kingdoms of France & GermanyAge of Feudalism (Chivalry):High to Late Middle Ages*1066-William the Conqueror enters England* Song of RolandRenaissance(1300s- 1500s)(Humanism & Advancements)Reformation & Counter ReformationBlack Death*1347:plague spreads fromAsia to EuropeAge of Exploration*1492-Columbus sails*1549-St. Francis arrives in Japan*1616- Shakespeare dies*c1650-Mercantile economy dominates EuropeGrowth of monarchyClashes between church and monarchsCrusades( )JAPANHeian PeriodGolden Age of Lit.( )* Fujiwara family holds most important govPositions*Tale of GenjiKamakuraPeriodEarly Feudalism( )Ashikaga orMuromachi Period( )Development of Haiku & No (Noh)Momoyama( )Tokugawa PeriodLate Feudalism( )Shogunate Period*1274 & Monguls invade Japan but fought off* Onin Civil War; Kyoto destroyed in fighting*1600s: Japan forbids teaching of Christianity, expels missionaries, executes converts*1603- Tokugawa Ieyasu named Shogun*early 1700s- Kabuki & puppet plays popular in urban settingsIntellectualRevival
3 Comparison of Feudalism in Europe and Japan EuropeJapanNobilityking, lord, lesser lordemperor, shogun, daimyoWarriorsknightssamuraiCode of conductchivalrybushidoEvolutionBoth practices developed in response to the need for security and stabilityeveryone had well-defined social roleshelped preserve law and order
6 Comparison of Warrior Classes Japanese SamuraiEuropean Knights
7 Feudal Japan 1. Samurai 2. Loyalty 3. Bravery, honor 4 Feudal Japan 1. Samurai 2. Loyalty 3. Bravery, honor 4. Lord-vassal relationship 5. Family lineage importantFeudal Europe 1. Knights 2. Loyalty 3. Bravery, honor 4. Lord-vassal relationship 5. Family lineage importantSimilarities between Warrior Classes
8 Differences Between Warrior Classes Samurai:1. Seppuku or hari-kari; stoic acceptance of death 2. Lord-vassal relationship based on moral code 3. Any son or adopted son was heir 4. Women should have a samurai attitude - be tough 5. Interest in the arts and learningKnights:1. Survival, death as glory limited to the Crusades2. Lord-vassal relationship based on legal code3. Only firstborn son was heir4. Cult of chivalry - women put on pedestal asfragile, inferior beings5. Some contempt shown for arts and learning
9 Characteristics of Tokugawa 1600s Strong centralized government under emperor-shogunPeriod of stability & peaceRigid social structureClosed country to westernersEconomic prosperityWealthy merchant classCultural advancements in arts: kabuki, haiku, No(h) theaterTokugawa IeyasuFounder of Tokugawa Shogunate
10 The Shogunate issued explicit orders which defined the proper conduct for each of the classes: One was ideally expected to be born into and die in the same social position held by one's parents.Adherence to the doctrine of hierarchy was so strict that families were made to post their hereditary lineage outside their homes.