Presentation on theme: "Learning & The Brain Notes from 2/10 Conference"— Presentation transcript:
1 Learning & The Brain Notes from 2/10 Conference Lynn Fishman Hellerstein, O.D.,FCOVD, FAAO
2 Neuroplasticity Research Our brain is a dynamic system that has the capability of significant growth.Rudraprosad Chakraborty, M.D.J Indian Med Assoc 2007;105(9)Neuroplasticity researchLets you rewire and remodel your rainJudy Willis
3 Neuroplasticity Research Neuroplasticity research has established, beyond doubt, that instead of being a static cell mass, our brain is actually a dynamic system of neural networks that has the capability of significant growth under favorable circumstances.Rudraprosad Chakraborty, M.D.J Indian Med Assoc 2007;105(9)
4 Neuroplasticity Research Research shows that adults do, in fact, exhibit neuroplasticity. You can use this innate ability to treat a variety of visual system disorders.Dominick M. Maino, O.D., M.Ed.Review Optometry (1/09)
5 Neuroplasticity & Visual System Disorders Neuroplasticity as a Proposed Mechanism for the Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy and RehabilitationHuang JC. J Behav Optom 2009;20:96-100…70% all sensory input fibers to brain is related to vision and visual processing, optometrists can play a major role in the rehabilitation of visually-related deficits
6 Research - Stress Relaxation response physical and emotional responses to stress can be changedState of deep rest that decreases metabolism, slows the heart beat, relaxes the muscles, slows breathing, reduced BP, increases nitric oxide
7 Research Stress If practiced-lasting effects Herbert Benson’s Harvard “Relaxation Response”
8 Research Emotions, Mind & Body - Candace Pert PhD Emotions are both energy and matter and are the communication bridge between the mind and body.Suggests the body is the subconsciousEmotions and thoughts effect our body, but are not permanently hard- wired
9 The 2nd Brain Dr. Michael Gerson Chair Anatomy & Physiology Columbia Medical Center100M Neurons in the gutEsophagus-AnusGut does much more than digestsImpacts emotions & moods
10 Research - Visualization Same parts of the brain light up on MRI when person looks at an actual object,or if they imagine the same objectin their mindBasketball StudyEvolve Your Brain: The Science of Changing Your Mind byDr. Joe Dispenza 2007“What the Bleep”
11 Research - Visualization We can release our emotions and thoughts and rewire our neuro-networksThis is how visualization can affect physical/brain changes
12 Is Vision Therapy Just for Kids? Lots of people have vision problems.Neuro-scientist-professor at Mt. Holyoke-teaches visionShows theories of vision incorrect-supported by Dr. Oliver SacksDr. Susan Barry
13 12 Brain Rules – John Medina Ph.D. The brain is an amazing thing. Most of us have no idea what’s really going on inside our heads. Yet brain scientists have uncovered details every business leader, parent, and teacher should know.Dr. John Medina- Developmental Molecular BiologistImprove thinking skills- move2. Don’t have 1 brain in our head- 3. Started with “lizard rain” to keep us breathing, then added a brain like a cat’s, then topped those thie the thin layer of Jell-O known and the cortex-the 3rd and powerful “human brain”No 2 people’s brains store the same information in the same way in the same place- great number of ways of being intelliegnet many of which don’t show up on IQ testsBrain’s attentional “spotlight” can focus on ly one things at a time: no multitasking. Emotional arousal helps the brain learn. The brain has many types of memory systems. The more elaborately we encode a memory during its initial moments, the stronger it will be.Most memories disappear within minutes, but those that survive the fragile period strengthen with time. The way to make long-term memory more reliable iExercisers outperform couch potatos in long-term memory, reasoning, attention, and problem solving tasks (etting rid of PE at school)s to incorporate new information gradually and repeat it in timed intervals.Powerpoint- seconds to grab someone’s attention and only 10 miins. To keep it.Brain needs a break (stories)Fatigue at 3PM?- brain wants to atake nap.Sleep wellWhy terrible twos are a child’s powerful urge to explore.
14 12 Brain Rules Exercise boosts brain power Human brain evolved too Every brain is wired differentlyWe don’t pay attention to boring thingsRepeat to rememberRemember to repeatImprove thinking skills- move2. Don’t have 1 brain in our head- 3. Started with “lizard rain” to keep us breathing, then added a brain like a cat’s, then topped those thie the thin layer of Jell-O known and the cortex-the 3rd and powerful “human brain”No 2 people’s brains store the same information in the same way in the same place- great number of ways of being intelliegnet many of which don’t show up on IQ testsBrain’s attentional “spotlight” can focus on ly one things at a time: no multitasking. Emotional arousal helps the brain learn. The brain has many types of memory systems. The more elaborately we encode a memory during its initial moments, the stronger it will be.Most memories disappear within minutes, but those that survive the fragile period strengthen with time. The way to make long-term memory more reliable iExercisers outperform couch potatos in long-term memory, reasoning, attention, and problem solving tasks (etting rid of PE at school)s to incorporate new information gradually and repeat it in timed intervals.Powerpoint- seconds to grab someone’s attention and only 10 miins. To keep it.Brain needs a break (stories)Fatigue at 3PM?- brain wants to atake nap.Sleep wellWhy terrible twos are a child’s powerful urge to explore.
15 12 Brain Rules Sleep well, think well Stressed brains don’t learn the same wayStimulate more of the sensesVISION trumps all other sensesWE SEE WITH OUR BRAINSMale and female brains are differentWe are powerful natural explorersThe brain is in a constant state of tension between cells and chemicals that try to put you to sleep and cells & chemicals that try to keep you awake. People vary in how much sleep they need and when they prefer to get it- biological drive for an afternoon nap is universal. Too much sleep hurts attention, executive function, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning, and motor dexterity.Your body’s defense system- release of adrenaline and cortisol-is build for an immediate response to a serious but passing danger (saber-tootherd tiger). Chronic stress, sucha as hostility at home, dangerously deregulates a system built only to deal with short-term responses. The worst kind of stress is the feeling that you have no control over the problem-you are helpless. Emotional stress has huge impacts across society on children’s ability to learn in school and on employees’ productivity at work.We absorb info about an event through our senses, translate it into electrical signals (some for sight, others from sound, etc), disperse those signals to separate part of the brain, then reconstruct what happened, eventually perceiving the event as a whole. Our senses evolved to work togethrer – vision including hearing, for example0which means that we learn best if we stimulate several senses at once.VISION IS our dominant sense, taking up half of our brain’s resources. What we see is only what our brain tells us we see-its not 100% accurate. We learn and remember best through pictures, not through written or spoken wordsMen’s & women’s brains are different structurally and biochemically. They respond differently to acute stress: Women activate the left hemisphere’s amygdala and remember the emotional details. Men use the right amygdala and get the gist.Babies are the model of how we learn-not by passive reaction to the environment but by active testing through observation, hypothesism experiement, and conslution.
16 Brain ResearchCreate an education environment opposed to what the brain is good atClassroomCreate a business environment opposed to what the brain is good at doingCubicleWant to change things?Start over!
17 Intelligence Is Biology Richard Haier, PhD Brain structure and metabolic efficiency may underlie individual differences in intelligenceImaging research is pinpointing which regions are key players
18 Intelligence Is Biology Richard Haier, PhD Smart brains work in different way Women and men with same IQ show different underlying brain architecturesIndividual’s pattern of gray and white matter might underlie his specific cognitive strengths & weaknesses
19 Intelligence Is Biology Richard Haier, PhD What about new drugs & tools for cognitive enhancement?Scans instead of SAT?
20 Heredity, Environment, & Race Differences in IQ U. Michigan professor- writes about intelligence and cultural psychology
21 Heredity, Environment, & Race Differences in IQ Black – white IQ gap is NOT hereditaryAdoption and intervention programs produce substantial lasting effects on black IQAt-risk kids- need intervention
23 Mindset – Robert Brooks Assumptions & Expectations we have about self and others guide our behaviorStrategies are worthless unless you believe in them & yourself
24 Mindset – Robert Brooks With kids with learning problems, need to change their mindsetsMotivating environment:People being cooperativeWilling to learn from each otherWilling to take risks because they feel safe & secureAll parties feel a sense of ownership
30 How Your Child Learns Best What is the biggest fear of students?Not being liked by the teacherBad gradesMaking a mistake in front of the class
31 How Your Child Learns Best What is the biggest fear of students?Making a mistake in front of the class
32 How Your Child Learns Best Everything we learn comes to the brain through our sensesBrain can’t process billions of bits of info every sec.Equipped with filters to protect from overload & focus on the data most critical for survival.
33 How Your Child Learns Best Helping your child turn information into KNOWLEDGERAD Learning =RAS + Amygdala + Dopamine
35 How Your Child Learns Best RAS – Reticular activating systemLocated at brain stem (lower back of brain)Receives input from nerves from arms, legs, trunk, neck, face, internal organsSets the state of arousal alerts brain to change & gets it primed
36 How Your Child Learns Best Selects for intake the sensory input (info) it “values” for survival or pleasureRAS responsive to novelty, surprise, color, curious eventsLectures, drills & worksheets are NOT novel or engaging- don’t power info thru RAS brain filter
37 How Your Child Learns Best Amygdala – next filterSensory data passes through brain’s emotional core, limbic system (amygdala & hippocampus)Emotional significance is linked to infoKennedy
38 How Your Child Learns Best When stress is high, amygdala diverts info to the reflex automatic system, non-thinking reactions (flight/fight)When amygdala is in a safe state and emotions are positive, info is passed on to the memory-making and thinking networks in the brain
39 How Your Child Learns Best Stress, boredom, frustration or confusion block the flow of info through amygdala to the thinking brainWhen learning is associated with pleasure, the amygdala “stamps” that info with increased memory impact
40 How Your Child Learns Best Dopamine – NeurotransmitterCarry info across synapsesReleased when experience is pleasurable
41 How Your Child Learns Best Dopamine – NeurotransmitterElicited through humor, friends, achievementIncreases focus, attention and executive function in the frontal lobes
42 How Your Child Learns Best You need brain-friendly strategies to empower your child to respond to the most useful sensory input from the environment and turn that data into retained knowledge
43 Dr. Judith Willis “I guide students in activities that help them focus and achieve positive moodsto prime themselves for learning.We practice techniquesto increase mindfulness.”
44 Dr. Judith Willis “For example, students learn to do visualizations, deliberately recallingin detail a place where they felthappy, calm, and safe.”
45 Dr. Judith Willis The more learners practice visualizing their particular calming place, the strongerthe neural network holding that memorybecomes;
46 Eventually, the students can easily Dr. Judith WillisEventually, the students can easilyreturn to that memorywhenever they feelstressed.
47 Dr. Judith Willis Returning to that safe place enables learners to let new informationthat someone is presentingflow into their thinking brainrather than being filtered out.
48 NeuroplasticityWhen the action is repeated, the more dendrites sprout to connect new memories to old ones, stronger the connections become, the more efficient the brain becomes at retrieving that memory or action
49 How Your Child Learns Best This teaches students how they can change their intelligence by teaching them about their brainsI study becauseI CAN CHANGE MY BRAIN