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© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 1 Scope Management Elizabeth Harrin PROMS-G London, 11 May 2006
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 2 Agenda What is scope? Why is it difficult to manage? Improving scope management Two items that have to be in scope
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 3 A definition... Scope is the what of your project: a high-level statement of what you are going to do
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 4 Scope stats The average project: goes through four formal versions of scope only achieves 93% of what it set out to deliver (falling to 67% on projects that are delayed or over budget) will evolve more through in-house changes than through the customers changes Yet scope is the number one way to judge a projects success
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 5 Some difficulties Assumptions Mental model mismatch Scope creep
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 6 Assumptions Statements made during a project that are not based on known or certain facts
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 7 Assumptions Things you have to assume because you dont yet know Things you are taking for granted will stay the same
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 8 Assumptions It lay on its side in such a way that the solid parts of the block formed a roof and a floor, both waterproof, and the hollows made two spacious rooms. Lined with bits of leaves, grass, cloth, cotton fluff, feathers and other soft things Mrs Frisby and her children had collected, the house stayed dry, warm and comfortable all winter. A tunnel to the surface-earth of the garden, dug so that it was slightly larger than a mouse and slightly smaller than a cats foreleg, provided access, air, and even a fair amount of light to the living room. The bedroom, formed by the second oval, was warm but dark, even at midday. A short tunnel through the earth behind the block connected the two rooms. Mrs Frisby and the Rats of NIMH, Robert C OBrien (1971)
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 9 Mental model
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 10 Exercise Pair up Person 1 draws a house on a piece of paper Person 1 describes their house to Person 2 Person 2 draws a house based on Person 1s description Compare drawings!
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 11 Scope creep Scope creep happens because: it is difficult to say no it is easier to say yes all those little changes cant hurt it will be a better project if we include those changes and so on...
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 12 The triangle Scope Resources Time Scope Resources Time Scope Resources Time
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 13 Beat the issues Involve users in scope definition Manage risks and issues Manage changes Keep it small
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 14 Using users Be clear Document what is not included in the project Clarify your understanding If we did this, what would be left out? What would we do that is really unnecessary?
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 15 Risks and issues Changes result in risks/issues Risks/issues result in changes
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 16 Changes Any change will: need to be analysed for its impact on project objectives need to be analysed for its impact on project scope modify your existing plans need to be recorded properly for a complete audit trail Remember: changes are good!
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 17 Keep it small Pilot Proof of concept Phases Short tasks Phased implementation approach Extended pilot
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 18 Two essentials Dont forget to include these in your scope: Benefits plan Post-project review
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 19 Benefits How do you know if you have done a good job? By tracking benefits: Define success criteria Establish the current baseline Monitor ongoing achievement against targets
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 20 PPR analyse what went well to review the key challenges to bring everyone together at the end of the project to formally close it to formalise the key lessons learnt during the project to record this knowledge for other projects A post-project review is a debrief at the end of the project to:
© Elizabeth Harrin May 2006 21 Questions?
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